The research paper **Cryptography and Network Security in Distributed Networking System Seminar** defines what cryptography is and how it helps in providing security to shared information and data. It is said in the research paper that the explosive growth in computer systems and their interconnection via networks has increased the dependence of both organizations and individuals on the information stored and communicated. This in turn, has lead to a heightened awareness of the need to protect data and resources from disclosures, to guarantee the authenticity of data and messages and to protect the systems from network based attacks. Secondly, the disciplines of cryptography and network security have matured, leading to the development of practical, readily available applications to enforce network security.

**What is meant by cryptography: **The research paper explains the term cryptography and also explains how the process is achieved it says that the word cryptography means “secret writing”. However, the term today refers to the science and of transforming messages to make them secure and immune to attacks. The original message before being transformed is called plaintext. After the message is transformed, it is called cipher text. An encryption algorithm transforms the plaintext to cipher; a decryption algorithm transforms the cipher text back to plaintext. The sender uses an encryption algorithm and the receiver uses a decryption algorithm.

**Symmetric Key Cryptography**: The paper explains symmetric key cryptography. The symmetric-key cryptography algorithms are so named because the same key can be used in both directions. Here, the same key is used by both sender/receiver. The sender uses this key and an encryption algorithm to encrypt data. The receiver uses the same key and a decryption algorithm to decrypt data. In Symmetric-key cryptography, the algorithm used for decryption is the inverse of the algorithm used for encryption. The research paper explains the benefits and drawbacks of symmetric key cryptography.

**Conclusion: **

The research abstract ends on the note that the security mechanisms usually involve more than a particular algorithm or protocol. This usually also requires some secret information that raises the questions about creation, distribution and protection of that secret information which are major tasks that are involved in this science of cryptography.

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