4G Wireless Technology Seminar Report

4G wireless technology seminar Report Consists of these topics

  • Introduction
  • vision of 4G
  • key 4G technologies

4G is the new upcoming technology which helps us to stay connected to the world through internet. It is the most intelligent technology. This document provides us in details explanation about this technology.

Why 4G:

4G is the abbreviation of the fourth generation of wireless telecommunication technology. It offers the best data rate for transfer and supports video conferencing and video calling. It offers larger area coverage.

History of 4G wireless Technology:

The evolution of wireless network began from the first generation of this technology. it was been invented in the year 1970. It offered only analog data transfer. The second generation was invented in the year 1980’s. it offered a good data rate transfer than that of 1G. it offered digital data transfer. Used core technologies like TDMA and GSM.

Then in the year 1990’s 3G was invented to overcome the incompatibilities of earlier versions. This version of wireless system became popular throughout the world as it offered digital data transfer and many more facilities and a high data transfer speed than that of earlier version. And then it was time to invent something which would meet the increasing demands of internet users.

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  Technologies used in 4G:

a.)    OFDM

OFDM stands for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. It helps in improving the physical layer performance. Offer cross layer optimization and provides flexibility in resource allocation.

b.)    SDR

SDR stands for software defined radio. It provides flexibility in multi base band stations data transfer.

c.)    MIMO

MIMO stands for multiple inputs and multiple outputs. It allows ease in multi path data transfer.

d.)    Handover and mobility

As there is evolution in communication standards the most important factor to consider is Quality of Service. It consists of factor to be considered like cost of communication, delay, and data rate.

Applications of 4G Technology:

Fourth generation technology can be used in geographical information system and global positioning system. More filed where it can be used are tele medicine and education, crisis management, and multimedia service.

Seminar Report Internet Telephony

Topics included in Internet Telephony seminar Report are

  • standards of internet telephony
  • classes of connection
  • requirements of internet telephony management

Internet plays a very vital role in our life. We use internet for various purpose.  Some use it to get the information from Google, some use it to stay in contact with friends, relative and also colleagues. We can call our friends and relatives through internet. In this paper we are going to go through one such communication medium known as internet telephony.

Introduction to Internet Telephony:

Internet telephony is the medium of communication which helps us to send video or audio over the internet through audio, video, and fax. It has helped the people throughout the world to say in touch with friends, relative, and to conduct meeting in for official work anywhere around the world.

Internet telephony video link provides a over view on different topics covered in this seminar.

What is internet Telephony:

When IP telephony was first introduced in the world it took the world of internet through the evolution to make call at long distance. Here internet telephony uses network to transfer data trough wired or wireless network with the help of packet switching which assures the sending of data with any interruption. The factors because of which internet telephony is possible are increased voice quality, due to advancement in compression technology, two way sound card allow the full duplex method to transfer audio data.

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Protocols Used in Internet Telephony:

The protocols used for internet telephony are H. 323. Standards for internet telephony, RAS signaling, Q 931 signaling, H245 Signaling, RTP and RTCP protocols, resource reservation protocol, and multi control units. These protocols enable the transfer of voice through internet over a long distance.

Classes of Connection:

The classes of connection used for internet telephony are phone to phone via internet, phone to PC in the internet, PC in the internet to phone, PC to PC in the internet, PC in the internet to PC in the separate IP based network via SCN, PC in separate IP based network to PC in the internet via SCN, and post deployment QOS monitoring,


Internet telephony is the most intelligent way of voice transfer and is gaining more importance all over the world as there are many advancement in this technology.

Holographic Memory Seminar

Holographic Memory seminar report consists of

  • Abstract
  • creating hologram
  • Retrieving hologram
  • Recording of data in holographic memory system

Computer Memory storage is most important concern for people using computers. Larger companies which need more data storage space they use data centers which store large storage systems for them. They also provide solution as holographic memory.

Holographic Memory Introduction:

Holograph memory storage technology is a developing technology in the field of memory storage. It stores about 1 TB of memory in crystal of cube shaped. Conventional storage system is not advance as hologram storage systems. It is necessary to meet the increasing needs of data storage system it was necessary to introduce such as method of storage which will store large data, and allow faster access of data.

Holographic memory ppt presentation video over view.

What is Holograph:

Holograph is a interface of two light source which contains block of sheets of photosensitive material. While creating a holograph, beams of light are split into two beams. These two beams are known as source beam and reference beam. And the result of this is collected on the photosensitive material which results in a holograph. This recorded holograph can be viewed with the reference beam. This reference beam in projected with the same angle as it was projected at the time of recording. Regeneration of the refracted light takes place as the light hits the recorded beam. Then the copy of source beam is sent holograph which can be read by optical sensors.

Holographic Memory Seminar Report free download

Applications of Holograph:

Application of holographic system to the binary manipulations. Spatial light modular is the one used for creating binary information.

Following steps take place when holography is used.

a.)     Retrieval of data from holographic system.

b.)    Page data access

c.)     Multiplexing

d.)    Wavelength Multiplexing

e.)    Spatial Multiplexing

f.)     Angular multiplexing.

Merits of Multiplexing

a.)    Larger storage capacity about 1TB.

b.)    Faster data access speed.

c.)     Need to provide

Survey of Radio Propagation Models for Mobile Communication PPT

Survey of Radio Propagation Models for Mobile Communication objective is to design a receiver that is suitable and will receive the signal that is transmitted and distorted because of the effects of channel dispersion and multipath that will easily decode the signal that is transmitted. The propagation models can address the problems in actual.

Survey of Radio Propagation Models for Mobile Communication

There are four kinds of fading like:


Slow and fast fading

Selective fading

Large-scale fading

There are again several basic propagation mechanisms like:




The Ray – tracing technique is based on the geometrical optics. The principle of the local fields and Fermat are the basic two concepts that are used extensively by the models. As per the principle of the Fermat the ray only allows the shortest distance from the field point to a source point. As per the principle of the local fields the high – frequency rays always produce reflection, destruction and refraction especially when it is hitting a hard surface. Image method and brute force ray tracing methods are the two kinds of ray-tracing methods.

The image methods help to generate the images on a plane from a source. These images further serve the purpose of secondary source for the points and reflections. It is only advisable for simple environments. Usually rays over the rooftops and reflections on the grounds are neglected. As per the order and number of reflections in diffraction rays that are considered a threshold must be set.

The Bruce-force ray- tracing method includes a heap of rays that are a transmitted or may not able to reach the receiver. The possible direction of the propagation from the transmitted is opted for a finite sample. For each of the directions a ray is launched. To obtain the rays from the source point there are two methods – 2D and 3D approach of ray tracing. A node is used for representing a surface interaction of an object.

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Asynchronous Transfer Mode PPT Presentation

Asynchronous Transfer Mode PPT Presentation Over View:

Asynchronous Transfer Mode is also known as asynchronous transfer mode and it runs at very high speed and low cost. It helps in transmission technology for video, audio, television and voice. It also delivers high transmission capacity at different speed. It provides the delivery speed of 155 Mbps to even 622 Mbps. It can handle both variable bit and constant bit data.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Asynchronous Transfer Mode PPT Presentation

The key to success of this procedure is the switching of cell which is a very efficient and advanced system than the traditional techniques of multiplexing. This is corrected oriented and offer simple network. It is used for the applications of the users that need  high bandwidth and increased transfer speed for data.

ATM Technology:

ATM technology is used by the broadband integrated services digital network that has a high rate of data and services. A larger bandwidth is provided by the ATM and high speed for the rate of data transfer along with quality services. All information is transmitted in fixed size packets known as cells.

The cell switching method is chosen as it is very flexible and can handle traffic at the constant rate and variable rate easily. Again, it is easier to perform digital switching at high speeds in comparison to the traditional technique of multiplexing especially for the use of fiber optics. Lastly, broadcasting is very important for the television distribution. The cell switching method can offer this but it is not possible by the circuit switching.

There are two kinds of ATM connections:

virtual paths that can be identified by the path identifiers and the virtual channels that can be identified only by the combination of a VCI and VPI. Usually a virtual path is a virtual channel bundle where all transparently switches across the network of the ATM on the common VPI basis. This is very useful and efficient system in comparison to the traditional technique.

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X-Ray Technical PPT Presentation


X-Ray beams were identified by the German physicist Will elm Conrad Rontgen in November 1895. He called the ‘revamped sort of flash’ or X-flashes, X for the unknown. their convenience to envision the inward life structures of people was made. Today, imaging with X-flashes is possibly the most regularly utilized demonstrative apparatus with the medicinal calling, and the systems from a basic midsection radiography to a computerized subtraction angiography or machine tomography rely on the utilization of X-flashes.

x-ray seminar


  • The principle lands of X-Ray beams, which make them suitable for the purposes of restorative conclusion, are there:
  • Proficiencies to infiltrate matter coupled with differential ingestion recognized in diverse materials; and
  • Capability to prepare glow and its impact on photographic emulsions.

Principles of X-Ray:

X-beams are transformed in: extraordinarily built glass tube, which fundamentally embodies.

(i)                A root for the handling 0: electrons,

(ii)             a power origin to quicken the electrons,

(iii)           a unlimited electron way,

(iv)            a method of cantering the electron bar and

(v)              a unit to stop the electrons.

Failure of X-Ray:

There are two principle limits of utilizing accepted X-flashes to test interior structures of the form.

  • Firstly, the super-encroachment of the several-dimensional informative content onto a solitary plane makes judgment jumbling and frequently troublesome.
  • Also, the photographic picture regularly utilized for making radiographs has a restrained dynamic extend and, consequently, just protests that have substantial differences in X-flash assimilation relative to their surroundings will create sufficient differentiation divergences on the picture to be recognized by the eye.


Following the time when the CT engineering was improved, quick infrastructures in PC equipment and finder innovation have been witnessed. Advanced CT frameworks get the projection information needed for one tomographic representation in roughly one second and show the recreated picture on a 1024 x 1024 lattice showcase within a few seconds. The representations speak for excellent tomographic maps of the X-flash straight lessening coefficients of the Patient tissues.

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Peer-To-Peer Video Streaming over the Internet PPT

Peer-To-Peer Video Streaming Introduction:

The World Wide Web (WWW) could be thought about as an expansive conveyed qualified information framework that furnishes access to offer information protests universally Web reserving is a well-known system suggested for allaying the embodiment of a situation. It offers to diminish the client reaction time, avert the system from occupied movement, and reduction the server load.

Peer-To-Peer Video Streaming
Peer-To-Peer Video Streaming PPT

Peer-To-Peer Video Distribution over the Internet Architecture:

In this building design, companions are gathered as per the controller. The controller allocates a Peer ID for any newcomer who unites the associate gathering.

Request Management:

The controller then terminates the association. Provided that there is no alterations to the reserve, then no administration inform can be sent by the companion when a revamped associate utilizes the framework outside of the norm, it sends a JOIN aggregation inform to the controller utilizing a TCP association. The controller answers with an ACK inform holding an interesting Peer ID. A companion sends its REQUEST inform to the controller by utilizing the RTSP indicating order. The controller methods the solicitation with several plausible conclusions:

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Transport Protocol:

The utilization of UDP is absolutely paramount recognizing the continuous streaming prerequisites and the necessity for minimizing the expenditure of companion valuable group-width. The utilization of UDP for transporting ENQUIRY inform, which is sent to all associates who have the solicited question, likewise leaves open for the utilization of multicast for conveying this post in the destiny


The configuration and implementation of an associate-to-associate storing structural planning was displayed numerical outcomes have been exhibited to represent the profits of the structural planning.

Data Clustering Techniques PPT

Data clustering techniques PPT covers over view about different types of clustering methods used and explanation about their methods.

Data Clustering
Data Clustering Techniques

Data Clustering means collection of useful data into the groups. These groups are called clusters. It means classification of similar type of data. This reduces the complexity of the data and also reduces the number of bits required in the computer science. Clustering also includes pattern representation, extraction and selection. Clustering also depends on the data representation and if the data is good clusters will be compact and isolated. Sometimes the number of clusters is defined automatically; it is also the problem in clustering.  There are many types of clustering:

Hierarchical clustering: this method is implemented on the 2-d types of data. They are mostly used in the pattern clustering. In which distance between the two clusters are minimum distance and rest all the pattern are drawn from these two clusters. In this each pattern we draw is own cluster.

Partition clustering: it generated single cluster instead of structure. They are best for the large data sets. They also work on isolated and compact clusters type of errors. They are easy to implement and less time consuming.

Nearest neighbor clustering: in this nearest node represent the basis of clustering. Each unlabeled pattern is assigned its nearest pattern.

Fuzzy clustering: in this every pattern belongs to one and only one cluster or belongs to the member function.

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 Useful Links:

 Data Clustering For Pattern Cluster Analysis Project Report

Private Branch Exchange PPT

The private branch exchange a mechanism for switching telephone calls within a rising. For example office, block or industrial facility. When PBXs were mechanized, the chaperon manually associated both the inquisitor and the individual being called by physically embedding a string. PABX is basically a mechanical form of the PBX. The PABX is in addition speedier with information correspondence, and can handle more telephone calls meanwhile. Continue reading “Private Branch Exchange PPT”

Wearable Computers Seminar

Wearable computer seminar explains about a technology that can be fitted into the human’s heel and can be charge through mechanical movement of the body.There is technology in which the human can walk by just wearing the laptop cell phone and pager. There is lot of development in wearable computing technology now days this have changed the world too much by developing the hardware, software and the communication between two technologies. Continue reading “Wearable Computers Seminar”