4G wireless technology seminar Report Consists of these topics
- vision of 4G
- key 4G technologies
4G is the new upcoming technology which helps us to stay connected to the world through internet. It is the most intelligent technology. This document provides us in details explanation about this technology.
4G is the abbreviation of the fourth generation of wireless telecommunication technology. It offers the best data rate for transfer and supports video conferencing and video calling. It offers larger area coverage.
History of 4G wireless Technology:
The evolution of wireless network began from the first generation of this technology. it was been invented in the year 1970. It offered only analog data transfer. The second generation was invented in the year 1980’s. it offered a good data rate transfer than that of 1G. it offered digital data transfer. Used core technologies like TDMA and GSM.
Then in the year 1990’s 3G was invented to overcome the incompatibilities of earlier versions. This version of wireless system became popular throughout the world as it offered digital data transfer and many more facilities and a high data transfer speed than that of earlier version. And then it was time to invent something which would meet the increasing demands of internet users.
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Technologies used in 4G:
OFDM stands for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. It helps in improving the physical layer performance. Offer cross layer optimization and provides flexibility in resource allocation.
SDR stands for software defined radio. It provides flexibility in multi base band stations data transfer.
MIMO stands for multiple inputs and multiple outputs. It allows ease in multi path data transfer.
d.) Handover and mobility
As there is evolution in communication standards the most important factor to consider is Quality of Service. It consists of factor to be considered like cost of communication, delay, and data rate.
Applications of 4G Technology:
Fourth generation technology can be used in geographical information system and global positioning system. More filed where it can be used are tele medicine and education, crisis management, and multimedia service.
In Laser Torch Based Communication System project we implemented a new generation “laser torch-based voice Transmitter and receiver” which is a good replacement for the present day communication systems.
Starting from the optical fiber communication wireless communication had taken several modifications recently laser based communication is gaining much attention in the field of space research and satellite communications.
Laser based voice transmitter and receiver:
- Laser torch acts as a carrier for the voice signal to be transmitted.
- It is a wireless open channel system
- Ability to transmit voice signals up to 500 meters.
Figure: block diagram representation of Laser Torch Based Communication System.
Capacitor based electrostatic microphone, is a most sensitive for the low amplitude signals also. Its main function is to convert the audio signal into electrical signal. These are ideal for high volume work.
Youtube video link to view circuit diagram, block diagram.
The transmitter section is comprised of pre amplifier, operational amplifier, and heat sink for absorption of noise in the signal, VR, and laser diode.
The laser torch acts as a medium for the laser. And it can transmit wavelength of range 780nm – 920nm.
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The receiver section of the laser communication system has photo detector for sensing the laser light, Audio amplifier for better audibility, common emitter amplifier and a loud speaker i.e. transducer.
In our project non volatile memory technology symposium (OUM); we presented solution for the limitations facing by the modern day digital memory devices. Ovonics Unified Memory (OUM) is the most advanced technology which had unique abilities in proving High endurance, low power, nonvolatile RAM with high speed facilities.
Non Volatile Memory Technology Symposium
OUM is a non-volatile memory which stores memory by using chalcogenide materials. This material comes under VI elements of the modern periodic elements. It is an alloy consists of germanium, antimony, and tellurium used for the storage of data in memory devices.
Next generation memory devices:
Apart from many more memory technologies the semi conductor technologies are gaining enormous attention in providing reduced cost/bit storage devices. The mechanism in these OUM devices is a reversible structural phase-change mechanism from the amorphous phase to a crystalline phase in a thin-film chalcogenide alloy material. OUM technology implements the conventional CMOS process to form the thin-film memory element.
Data writing mechanism:
Primarily the alloy is heated up to its melting point and rapidly cooled for getting amorphous substance and to get crystalline substrate it get heated below the melting point and make to settle down the crystalline particles for 50ns, And then programmed the programming is done in OUM devices by electrically Altering the structure i.e. amorphous or crystalline, of a small volume of chalcogenide alloy. The memory state of the cell is determined by reading the resistance.
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The ground based use radio frequency waves for transmission and reception of the information in between transmitter and the end systems. But radio can be used in satellite communication but they have some distortions, so microwaves are used in satellite communications. In this Satellite Communications Seminar paper we will see the frequency ranges used for transmitting the microwaves and the design of the transmitting systems and the antennas used for satellite communication. Continue reading “Satellite Communications Seminar”
The proposed 8 Candidate Quiz Buzzer design is used in quiz competition when they use buzzer for opting their turn. The proposed design is a microcontroller (AT89C51) based design and we use an AT89C51 microcontroller which belong s to the family of 8051 microcontrollers. In this paper we will see how the circuit design is made and how the buzzer works and displays the information on the screen. Continue reading “8 Candidate Quiz Buzzer Using At89c51 Microcontroller”