4G wireless technology seminar Report Consists of these topics
- vision of 4G
- key 4G technologies
4G is the new upcoming technology which helps us to stay connected to the world through internet. It is the most intelligent technology. This document provides us in details explanation about this technology.
4G is the abbreviation of the fourth generation of wireless telecommunication technology. It offers the best data rate for transfer and supports video conferencing and video calling. It offers larger area coverage.
History of 4G wireless Technology:
The evolution of wireless network began from the first generation of this technology. it was been invented in the year 1970. It offered only analog data transfer. The second generation was invented in the year 1980’s. it offered a good data rate transfer than that of 1G. it offered digital data transfer. Used core technologies like TDMA and GSM.
Then in the year 1990’s 3G was invented to overcome the incompatibilities of earlier versions. This version of wireless system became popular throughout the world as it offered digital data transfer and many more facilities and a high data transfer speed than that of earlier version. And then it was time to invent something which would meet the increasing demands of internet users.
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Technologies used in 4G:
OFDM stands for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. It helps in improving the physical layer performance. Offer cross layer optimization and provides flexibility in resource allocation.
SDR stands for software defined radio. It provides flexibility in multi base band stations data transfer.
MIMO stands for multiple inputs and multiple outputs. It allows ease in multi path data transfer.
d.) Handover and mobility
As there is evolution in communication standards the most important factor to consider is Quality of Service. It consists of factor to be considered like cost of communication, delay, and data rate.
Applications of 4G Technology:
Fourth generation technology can be used in geographical information system and global positioning system. More filed where it can be used are tele medicine and education, crisis management, and multimedia service.
In Laser Torch Based Communication System project we implemented a new generation “laser torch-based voice Transmitter and receiver” which is a good replacement for the present day communication systems.
Starting from the optical fiber communication wireless communication had taken several modifications recently laser based communication is gaining much attention in the field of space research and satellite communications.
Laser based voice transmitter and receiver:
- Laser torch acts as a carrier for the voice signal to be transmitted.
- It is a wireless open channel system
- Ability to transmit voice signals up to 500 meters.
Figure: block diagram representation of Laser Torch Based Communication System.
Capacitor based electrostatic microphone, is a most sensitive for the low amplitude signals also. Its main function is to convert the audio signal into electrical signal. These are ideal for high volume work.
Youtube video link to view circuit diagram, block diagram.
The transmitter section is comprised of pre amplifier, operational amplifier, and heat sink for absorption of noise in the signal, VR, and laser diode.
The laser torch acts as a medium for the laser. And it can transmit wavelength of range 780nm – 920nm.
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The receiver section of the laser communication system has photo detector for sensing the laser light, Audio amplifier for better audibility, common emitter amplifier and a loud speaker i.e. transducer.
In our project non volatile memory technology symposium (OUM); we presented solution for the limitations facing by the modern day digital memory devices. Ovonics Unified Memory (OUM) is the most advanced technology which had unique abilities in proving High endurance, low power, nonvolatile RAM with high speed facilities.
Non Volatile Memory Technology Symposium
OUM is a non-volatile memory which stores memory by using chalcogenide materials. This material comes under VI elements of the modern periodic elements. It is an alloy consists of germanium, antimony, and tellurium used for the storage of data in memory devices.
Next generation memory devices:
Apart from many more memory technologies the semi conductor technologies are gaining enormous attention in providing reduced cost/bit storage devices. The mechanism in these OUM devices is a reversible structural phase-change mechanism from the amorphous phase to a crystalline phase in a thin-film chalcogenide alloy material. OUM technology implements the conventional CMOS process to form the thin-film memory element.
Data writing mechanism:
Primarily the alloy is heated up to its melting point and rapidly cooled for getting amorphous substance and to get crystalline substrate it get heated below the melting point and make to settle down the crystalline particles for 50ns, And then programmed the programming is done in OUM devices by electrically Altering the structure i.e. amorphous or crystalline, of a small volume of chalcogenide alloy. The memory state of the cell is determined by reading the resistance.
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The ground based use radio frequency waves for transmission and reception of the information in between transmitter and the end systems. But radio can be used in satellite communication but they have some distortions, so microwaves are used in satellite communications. In this Satellite Communications Seminar paper we will see the frequency ranges used for transmitting the microwaves and the design of the transmitting systems and the antennas used for satellite communication. Continue reading “Satellite Communications Seminar”
The proposed 8 Candidate Quiz Buzzer design is used in quiz competition when they use buzzer for opting their turn. The proposed design is a microcontroller (AT89C51) based design and we use an AT89C51 microcontroller which belong s to the family of 8051 microcontrollers. In this paper we will see how the circuit design is made and how the buzzer works and displays the information on the screen. Continue reading “8 Candidate Quiz Buzzer Using At89c51 Microcontroller”
Introduction to Five Dimensional DVD Seminar:
We all know that a normal DVD can store to a maximum of 4 GB but a five divisional DVD can store 1.6 Terra bytes of data which is 300 times more than a normal DVD storage capacity.The name five dimensional DVD Seminar refers that it uses 5 dimensions for storing the data and there are 3 spatial domains included in the five dimensions. In this paper we will see how the five dimensions are used for storing the data and the architectural design of the five dimensional DVD.
Brief on five dimensional DVD:
For the five dimensional DVD Seminar the new technology is used for storing the data it is nanorods which can increase the storage potential in the limited medium.
Multiplexed optical recording is the method which is an unparalleled approach which increases the storage capacity and allows storing multiple addressable patterns in the available volume. In three dimensional DVD, polarization method is followed for storing records of data each other.
The nanorods have the capability of splitting when projected under a laser light, which allows storing of multiple layers of data. The researchers are using gold nanorods because they have more stability and their tunable absorption property.
Conventional Optical Storage Schemes:
The five dimensional DVD Seminar is in a research stage and it takes a few years of time to come into usage. But by using these DVD storage capabilities gets increased a lot. As the data storage is heavy it takes a bit time to fro reading process. The ECE Seminar research is going on to overcome the drawbacks.
Introduction to Recycling Technology Innovation:
When we feel a certain thing of no use we throw it has a waste. The natural wastes can be dumped in the soil and they get decomposed after some years and they do not pollute the soil or the environment. Here We have implemented Recycling Technology Innovation for reducing electronic wastage’s in present business world.
Now a day the usage of electronic devices has increased a lot and do not have a long life so they are thrown off as a waste and they do not get decomposes in the soil and due to the silicon and other chemicals present in these devices they pollute the environment to a larger extent. The only way to reduce this is to recycle them. In this paper we will the recycle methods on electronic wastes.
Measurements to reduce and Recycling e wastes:
The companies should manufacture the devices with a recyclable material and the usage of silicon should be reduced and an alternative should be found for that. Recycling industries should be encouraged so that the waste material can be reduced and the pollution can be under control.
The usage of ferromagnetic materials and phosphorous and chemical material should be completely controlled because they form poisonous gases when they are burnt and spoils the soil when buried in soil.
Recyclable plastic should be used in the electronic devices so that the wastage can decrease a lot and the companies a reuse the same material which greatly cut downs their manufacturing costs.
Waste Management & Recycling Products Screen Shot:
Future Recycling Technology App Development:
The electronic wastage should be reduced otherwise it becomes a serious threat for the nature and they cannot be decomposed. The government should take necessary actions and the people should be made aware regarding the effects caused by electronic wastes.
Download Recycling Technology Innovation Engineering Technical White Paper Presentation. Also See all Final ECE Seminar Reports and Project Paper Presentations.
Brief on automation of cars:
In the Automation of Cars system we have a receiver and it receives the signals from the transmitter. We can use microprocessor based design or a microcontroller based design depending on the requirement. We can use a finger scanner for locking the car and a navigator can be placed in the car which gives the location of the car and we can get the direction to the destination by using GPS technology. Continue reading “Automation of Cars using Embedded Systems Technology”
IABP Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Seminar Topic
IABP Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump is the device that is used in the cardiac applications. They are used in the medical field for the operation like heart transplant, coronary artery bypass surgery. They are also used in the pharmacotherapy for helping the ventricular functions. They are used in the therapy that increases the cardiac functions of the patients. It also improves the oxygen supply by increasing the speed of the blood circulations in the arteries. They use for the patients who have dysrhythmias and myocardial ischemia.
Component of AN IABP
IABP consist of two parts one catheter with balloon and the consoles that is used to regulate the inflation to the balloon and the deflation also.Catheter tip contain pressure device that in attached to the one end and gas reservoir that is attached to the other end. We can time it for inflation and deflation for the cardiac cycle. Its main aim is to improve the perfusion.
Indications For IABP Therapy:
They are used in the ICU or in the cauterization lab. This balloon can be inserted in both either right or left artery, after that they are threaded to 1cm or 2cm. we need to pass appropriate volume of He and CO2. Helium used are the lighter in weight and density and they can travel faster in the circuit of the balloon. While CO2 are slow so they have one advantage they can less harmful and as embolism is deceased and also decrease the rupturing of balloon.
They are used for the patients who are receiving chest pain again and again at the time interval, this method can be used for this, and it will reduce the symptoms. It also has many other features such as it reduces the heart rate and pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and it increases the gas flow in the vitals organs.
Download Seminar Topic on IABP Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump.
Introduction to Technical Seminar Topics on Bluetooth Based Smart Sensor Networks:
A lot multiple devices are launched in markets in today’s generation. Where each and every device is connected with the wireless communication system. Same device that is launched in last few years is the Bluetooth which is completely a wireless communication device which is very low cost and also very easy to install and also very easy to use. Bluetooth helps in connecting the users with each other at the same time and also permits to chat, transfer data and much more things that are available in the features of the Bluetooth communication system. Bluetooth mainly works on the Bluetooth sensor devices which are called as the sensor networks.
In the year 1994 the company named Ericsson Mobile communication launched the service called as the Bluetooth which can be also used as the global communication. This is such a type of service where there requires no need of the wires to be connected. The Bluetooth was first launched in Denmark in the 10th century.
The main target of the Bluetooth device is to work smoothly and firmly by connecting more than one device for the sake of communication by making the use of the wireless technologies. Bluetooth works on the 2.4 GHz where this frequency is called as the spectrum based technology.
In the upcoming next generation the developers are trying to develop such a Bluetooth device where that application can even supports the data analysis and also the data concentrator. In the today’s generation the specialize features of the Bluetooth device is very incrementing day by day. Many Bluetooth devices and applications are also launched in the markets. The developer teams are working parallel to challenge the demands of the people in day to day life. Related to Bluetooth the Infrared is also an application which can even transfer the data from one device to another.
Download B.tech Final Year Technical Seminar Topics on Bluetooth Based Smart Sensor Networks .