A Study of Cash Flow Analysis of Pharma Companies in India

The present study examines the Cash flow analysis of Pharma Companies during the period of 5 years. Financial ratios are applied in measuring the Cash flow performance and statistical as well as econometric techniques are employed in order to assess the behavior of the selected ratios. The study is done using the Balance sheet, Profit and loss account, and other financial information of the Pharmaceutical sector.

The analytical tools used for the study are ratio analysis and ANOVA for the five Pharmaceutical Companies. The financial information obtained was analyzed using the appropriate techniques and it was found that the Cash flow analysis level decreased in the year 2019 to compare the past years. The reason behind this is decreasing in inventories, sundry debtors, cash, and bank balance. The company liquidity ratio is more than the ideal ratio which shows that the company has no liquidity problem. The current Ratio was increasing and decreased from the year 2016-2020 the ratio was equal to the ideal ratio in the current year which shows the liquidity position of the company’s goods. Ideally, the quick ratio should be 1:1.


In general, analysis of Cash flow analysis trends, the relationship of Cash flow analysis to sales, liquidity of Cash flow analysis, analysis of the management of components of Cash flow analysis, and the management of Cash flow analysis and working capital finance of five Pharma Companies in five years from 2016 to 2020.


To study the Cash flow analysis of the Pharma Companies.
To study the Current assets to total assets of the Companies.
To Analyze the Quick ratios of the Pharma Companies.
To analyze the Current  assets  and  sales Position  of the Companies
To provide suitable suggestions to improve the Cash flow position in the Company.


The study is undertaken to study the analysis of Cash flow analysis and working capital requirements of Selected Pharma Companies such as Dr. Reddy’s, Cipla, Aurbindo Pharma, Sun Pharma, and Ranbaxy for Five years.


The data is analyzed from the Financial statements of the Five selected Pharma Companies using  Ratio and ANOVA.


The secondary data was collected from the Pharmaceutical sector
The Study is limited to the Cash requirements of Pharma Companies

A study on Equity Analysis with reference to Selected IT Companies


The study covers all the information related to the Equities it also covers the risk and returns in IT industry. The study is confined only one Sector i.e IT industry and the entire study is based upon their Stock prices for a period of last two years. The present study attempts to analyze the risk and return in the IT industry in the current scenario and attempts to give a well understanding to the investors regarding the investment in this industry.


  • To observe the rate of fluctuations in equity share prices of IT industry.
  • To determine the amount of risk & returns involved in the securities of IT industry.
  • To observe the degree of volatility in IT industry.
  • To understand the price fluctuations & the factors influencing the fluctuations of IT industry. 


The Scope of the study confines to the risk and return analysis and price fluctuations in respect of the equity share prices of the major IT companies traded in the stock exchange for a one year period. The study aims to find out the factors influencing prices of the IT stocks.


The Study on Risk and Return Analysis of equity shares in IT industries was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the concept of investments, the risks and the returns involved. The study aims to determine the risk involved in the investments and the factors affecting the risk. The other objectives of the study are to observe the rate of fluctuations and the degree of volatility of the selected industries.

The study is confined to the IT sector and analyzed four companies – TCS, WIPRO, HCL INFOSYSTEMS and INFOSYS. The data of the only one sector – TCS, WIPRO, HCL INFOSYSTEMS and INFOSYS are collected. 

The Study of India Income Tax Returns for Expatriates


  • To understand the procedure for filing returns for Expatriates.
  • To understand and help the clients for better Tax Management.
  • To understand the various ITR forms and the changes made in ITR AY 2021:22.
  • To understand the India Income Tax Laws.
  • To ensure all the relevant required information is available for the preparation of the return- supporting documents, investment proofs, Foreign Tax Return etc.
  • To refer to case laws with respect to issues specific to the assignees and apply accordingly.
  • To input the data with respect to the stock awards, bonuses and all the taxable components (applicable accordingly to the residential status), on Taxmate (Software used in the preparation of the returns), in order tp prepare the tax return.
  • To generate the computation, relevant ITR forms (as applicable to the assignee).
  • To generate the Basis of Preparation document – A document that is given to the assignee explaining the basis how the Income Tax Computation was made.



  • Facts and Figures
  • Jotting down important points during the training period
  • Organizational records


  • India Income Tax Website
  • Information on expatriate taxation in India, preparation and electronic filing of returns has been collected from various research Articles, Journals.
  • Census
  • News Papers
  • Data Collection from Books
  • Investopedia
  • Chronologicals


  • The study has been mostly made based on secondary sources of information.
  • The case studies mentioned are based on the IT (Information Technology) Major firm worked with and hence the outcomes would vary from case to case as applicable.
  • The report is a comprehensive case study and therefore no statistical analysis has been made.
  • Not every detail about the process could be discussed or disclosed due to confidential measures.
  • Difficulty in communicating with all the employees within the organization due to shift timings.
  • Intangible factors of human behavior cannot be quantified accurately and all patterns of relationships among factors may not be cov

A Study on Impact of FDI in Indian Hospitality Industry at Hyderabad

This survey is purely based out of Hyderabad and the data collected is through various sources the data has been analyzed and then the Impact of FDI on Indian hospitality has been concluded.

Objectives of the Study:

  • The Major objective of the study is to understand the concept of Foreign Direct Investment
  • The Impact of FDI in India and its economy
  • The Impact of FDI on the Hospitality Industry in India
  • The SWOT and PESTLE Factors of Hospitality and their impact through FDI
  • Industry Perception and the customer’s perception in terms of the increase in the facilities

Scope of the Study:

The scope of the study is based on the FDI, the policies, and procedures. The hospitality industry in India, The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Hospitality Industry especially the Hospitality and the Tourism Industry. The Data is being collected from senior officials of private Hospitality and people from different hospitality backgrounds. The scope while collecting data with respect to Foreign Direct Investment etc., is across the pan India level and the data SWOT & PESTLE analysis is done based on the pan India scenario and the data.

Need of the Study:

Foreign Direct Investment is playing a key role in developing the economy and creating employment in host countries. When it comes to hospitality there are many aspects where the taste and the preferences of the people of the nation have to be taken care and there is a thin line that will have positive and negative aspects of FDI in the hospitality Industry. And that is the reason for considering the topic for my research study as a part of my academics.


  • Exact figures of FDI & Investments in the Hospitality Industry as there are many segments that come under this.
  • Duration of the project which is a time constraint.
  • Data Collected from Customers and the representatives of the Hospitality Industry
  • SWOT changes as per PESTLE which is a variable one and analysis is done based on the existing scenario.

Research Methodology:

The main objective of my study is to Identify the Impact either positive or negative which is been on the Hospitality sector due to Foreign Direct Investment.


  • Foreign Direct Investment is consistently Increasing in India.
  • The FDI with respect to Hospitality Industry is recording a growth of 5% every year.
  • The FDI in hospitality is Increasing competition and the small Players who could not cope are closing/ winding up their businesses.
  • The new properties are coming up across India in places like Bhiwandi, Ankleshwar, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Ahmedabad where 90% of the Hotels and resorts are being constructed by Foreign Investments and by foreign players.
  • The traditional Players like Taj, Oberoi, etc., could compete with foreign brands like west woods, Sheraton, etc.,
  • This competition is letting the prices go as low as possible which is in the budgets for Middle class and above middle-class people whereas the three-star category and 5 Star category of Indian Hospitality companies could not give.
  • Combos like Flights, Hotels, Cab, Tourism, etc., are being offered and it is a mix, this is the blend where the domestic hospitality players are suffering.
  • There are Players who are coming up with the concerts and they are mixing the modern with the Indian Tradition where the staff will be wearing the Rajasthani, Bengali, Gujarathi, etc., attires in their duties.
  • FDI is coming in Dollars and when it is compared with Indian Rupee the ratio is high, that is the reason there are more than 189 Properties where Foreign Investors are Investing in India.
  • The Values, Traditions, cultures, etc., fashion, lifestyles, food habits, and the changing tastes and preferences of Indian earning segments.


  • The Indian Hospitality companies have to cope with the changing tastes and the preferences of the Indian earning segment people.
  • The economy of India is growing and FDI has its own contribution to this, apart from Hospitality there are many other segments like service, IT, ITES, Manufacturing, etc., and Industries where there are inflows of FDI which is an Indirect driver for an Increase in Hospitality Industry.
  • Indian Hospitality has to adopt new technologies in attracting customers and even give them the best service at low prices.
  • The blend and the mix of offers like Flight/Train/Bus tour Packages, Hotels, Food, etc., should be there as a part of their Marketing Mix and the Marketing Plan or the Business Model.
  • The Themes and the concerts etc., to be organized, there is a need to keep up and retain the cultures and the traditions of India but it has to be aligned in line with the need of the hour of the customers.
  • tourism is another Industry that is consistently in India for the past 5 years where there are many foreign visitors coming to India and again there is a path and a way to showcase the customs and the values of India in Hospitality in a creative way to increase profitability.


The Impact Foreign Direct Investment is having two different types of effects in India. When it comes to Hospitality Industry it is creating turbulence and making small players wind up their Businesses. The other way is that it is forcing the competitors to decrease the prices and attract customers with offers, coupons, etc. When it comes to the business environment end of the day is competition and the business environment. When it comes to customer delight, the customer is getting the best service with the best standards at competitive prices.

The Major problem area observed here is that due to a lack of Market research and strategies, Indian Hospitality companies failed in estimating the growth in the Indian economy. There is a growth in IT, ITES, Pharma, etc., industries along with Tourism, this is the area where foreign Hospitality companies have identified and invested a huge amount in India in this industry. The financial strength of Indian Hospitality companies is another aspect. The aggressive Investments, Competitive prices, Corporate tie-ups, Offers, packages, etc.,
The Indian hospitality companies also failed in forecasting and estimate the changing preferences and tastes of Indians and foreigners who are visiting India.
The technical aspects like mobile applications, conferences, events, live telecasting, etc., Digital Marketing, online bookings with packages, etc., are the areas where Indian small and Medium hospitality companies have to work to sustain in this highly competitive environment created by Foreign Direct Investment in Indian Hospitality Industry.

An Equity Research Study and Comparative Analysis on companies within a specific Industry

Along with the increase in the volume of trading in stock markets worldwide, there has also been a rise in investors’ sentiments and awareness about the risks and returns associated with their chosen portfolio(s). A boost in the growth of industrialization and globalization in business has further interlinked the economies and industries on a large scale.

Against the backdrop of such a scenario, an investor gets presented with a wide variety of financial avenues for investments in the stock markets. The stock market is a very sensitive domain among the various investment opportunities. A slight miscalculation or interpretation of the performances of various stocks may lead to wrong assumptions and the selection of inappropriate equities(stocks) of companies. This ultimately may cause huge financial risk and losses to retail and institutional investors or foreign investors.

In such a critical scenario, it becomes imperative for investors to have complete and unbiased knowledge and information about various companies trading in the stock exchanges in order to evaluate, analyze and choose the right kind of stocks to invest in. This is where an equity analyst comes into the picture. The job of an Equity Analyst is to do an extensive study on the concerned industry/company in any particular economy by looking into and measuring the past and present performances of the company and projecting its future potential and line of profit based on these detailed studies.

Thus, Equity Research is a radical study involving the analysis of various industries and companies done by an Equity Research Analyst. These analysts are usually engaged by investors who actively trade in stock markets worldwide or even by large investment institutions. So, such analysts perform a meticulous survey on various business sectors of the economy and give recommendations to their clients on ‘Buying’, ‘Selling’ or ‘Holding’ of stocks and based on the performance of such stocks in the future, the analysts earn rewards or their share of profit/earnings.

An equity research analysis is mainly of two types: Fundamental Analysis and Technical Analysis. Both these methods of approach towards analyzing stocks are different in their work methodology and are therefore in contrast with one another. Fundamental Analysis focuses on determining the intrinsic(true) value of stocks by evaluating the performances of a company based on its financial statements like the Balance Sheet, Profit & Loss statement, and Cash Flow statements. It is a long-time approach to Equity Analysis and is the traditional one between the two. The Technical Analysis requires an extensive study of the market and the demand and supply factors that influence the prices of stocks in the market.

The work methodology here involves studying the past pricing trends of stocks in the market and predicting their present & future values by studying such trends from various statistical data and patterns like bar diagrams, charts, and graphs and using statistical tools like Moving Averages, Candle-Stick, Relative Strength Index(RSI), Fibonacci Series, etc. Both these kinds of analysis offer useful orientations to evaluate stock prices and their performances and are a debatable topic among research analysts as both come with certain pros and cons related to their basic principles and fundamentals.

This project is hence, a kind of research to dig deeper into the Indian Stock Market and analyze which industry is the best to invest in, from an Equity Analyst’s point of view.


This research project broadly aims to find out the best possible alternatives for an equity investor to invest in the Indian economy by studying and analyzing the performances of relevant industries and companies within it. To detail it out in the following points as mentioned below, the objective of the project covers:

To find out if the Indexing Strategy is effective or not (Any alternative method/strategy can also be used)

Indexing Strategy is based on the passive psychology and sentiment of investors wherein they believe in investing only in the high-performing stocks of the market or usually in stocks of blue-chip companies or those stocks which are included in the stock indices like Sensex or Nifty. The main strategy here is to follow and analyze those stocks in the market to invest further in them, which follow the stock index returns closely or have a close correlation with the market index returns. Hence, this project aims at following the Indexing Strategy to evaluate stocks of blue chip companies in order to find out the best stock/equity to invest in and see how many effective results it gives.

To find out the best performing Industry/sector presently in the economy.

The aim of this research project is to find out which Indian industry is performing optimally in the capital markets during the past quarter and hence can be the most favored option for equity investors to invest in. This research also attempts to find out which Industry follows the Indian stock index closely and hence is the one to be most impacted by the market index returns.

  • To find out the best-performing companies in the resultant best-performing industry.

The other objective is to further analyze the companies within the chosen best-performing industry to find out which 3 companies have the highest correlation with the stock market index and then draw a comparative analysis among them to choose the best option available to the investors for equity investing.

To study the impact of the recent demonetization of Indian currency (optional objective)

This study will also focus on finding out what effect the recent demonetization in the economy had on the whole stock market in India. The study will hence reveal what kind of positive or negative impact the demonetization had on the various sectors and companies of the Indian economy that actively trade in the stock markets, the effect on Sensex/ Nifty, and also reflect the effects on the stock prices and their returns on investment.


 The stock of a particular company that has strong fundamentals(financial statement records) and follows the Indexing Strategy style of investment serves to be the best possible investment option for an equity investor in present times.


This research methodology is based on analytical research. The approach/technique used here to evaluate the performances of industries and relevant companies within it is the fundamental (and technical) analysis of stocks. This will be from an equity analyst’s perspective.

Nature/source of data:

The data used will be secondary data. The financial statements and annual reports of the companies would be procured from the relevant company’s official website and through authorized statistical data-oriented sites. Much of the information is also obtained through the official trading sites of NSE and BSE and through other frequent equity trading sites. The literature review information is obtained after going through several economic and financial journals relating to “Equity Analysis of stocks”.

The time period covered:

The daily share prices of the relevant companies chosen and the financial statements of companies are taken for a period of the past 5-10 years (a long time period needed for carrying out fundamental analysis). For technical analysis, around 5 year period can be assumed.

Steps of Research Process:

The framework of the research process is described as under:

FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS: This involves evaluating and studying the financial statements and reports of the companies in order to analyze the performances of each company on the stock exchange. Fundamental analysis involves:

Analysis of the industries –

Some prominent business sectors/industries in the economy would be taken and studied thoroughly. The industries which have a strong impact on the index or vice versa will be traced and accordingly, the best sector will be chosen for investment. A thorough analysis of the resultant sector would be carried out like

  • Key revenue drivers.
  • Critical factors driving the industry.

Analysis of the companies –

This will involve taking an array of companies within the specified sector and the top three companies that follow the market index returns closely will be chosen. Then a comparative analysis among the three will be drawn through RATIO ANALYSIS by employing different profitability and valuation ratios. Lastly, Equity Valuation models like Discounted Cash Flow method(DCF) will be used to arrive at the present value of equity for various companies and hence decide their worth for investment and profitability or returns.

STOCK RECOMMENDATION: This will involve recommendations on holding/selling or buying the stocks depending on the results of the research work and nature of the business and the stock market scenario.

Statistical Tools employed: ( subject to changes as and when required)

  • To identify the industry most correlated to stock index returns-

             Covariance of ( index return, industry return).

  • To identify companies (within the chosen sector) most correlated to stock index returns-

Covariance of (company return, index return).

Covariance =( ∑{[ return of market index – average return of market index] * [return of industry, company – average return of industry, company]}) /( sample size)-1

  • Return of index/company-

 By using Relative of Change (ROC):

   Return = ( {Ending price level – starting price level } / { Starting price level }) * 100

Where Starting Price= Opening price on the 1st day of the start of the quarter.

Ending Price=   Closing price on the last day of the end of the quarter.


A better understanding of the performance of companies and valuations of their stocks against the stock market trends will facilitate the allocation of financial sources to the most profitable investment opportunity. The valuations of stocks will enable equity investors to make appropriate investment decisions.

The equity analysis research work also helps in understanding the behavior of the equity market. It helps the investors to be aware of the risk-profit relations concerned with equity buying or selling or holding of shares of companies and has a specific idea of how each sector or industry is operating in the economy. Ultimately, the analysis process helps in identifying the stocks which could yield higher returns and lesser risks.

A study on Technical analysis of Crude oil Futures with reference to Commodity Exchange (COMEX)



“A study on Technical analysis of Crude oil Futures with reference to Commodity Exchange (COMEX).” 


The Crude oil futures prices have shown a lot of volatility over the years; hence it is necessary to know the various technical and fundamental factors that influence the prices of Crude oil futures which will help the investor in reducing the risk involved in speculation. Since there is cut-throat competition in the present world market there is a need to study factors affecting Crude oil prices Even when Crude oil prices are high there is still a boom in the commodities market of Crude oil prices hence the main purpose and the need for the study are to know the Trend and direction of the Crude oil prices in COMEX   which is the index of other commodity exchanges which will help the investors to assess the level of risk and opportunities for buying and selling attached to it.

The study will give an insight into trading under Crude oil futures Prices of developed countries. The study is expected to identify various factors such as technical and fundamental that will impact price fluctuations of Crude oil in international trading platforms with special reference to COMEX.


  1. To know how Crude oil prices are traded in International Market
  2. To analyze the price fluctuations of Crude oil prices at COMEX
  3. To Conduct the Technical analysis of Crude oil futures using a Candle stick Study for the last year.
  4. To evaluate the trend analysis of Crude oil prices at COMEX
  5. To study the impact of Crude oil prices on investors and provide suitable direction for investing by studying the buying and selling points.


  • The study covers various tools used like Relative strength index, Moving averages, Stochastics, MACD, and Bollinger bands.
  • The study is confined only to Crude oil Futures in the commodity market and the last year’s data is taken.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:   The data which is used is secondary in nature.


The data will be collected from the journals, articles, books, and technical data available at International exchanges websites and Historical Chart Patterns using Candle Sticks. 


Technical Tools:

The various technical tools applied on Candle sticks charts such as the Relative strength index, MACD, and Bollinger bands will be used for analyzing Crude oil futures traded at COMEX. 


  • Difficulty in getting the live prices of Crude oil prices in absence of online research
  • Use of limited technical tools.
  • Commodity trading is limited to Crude oil prices only.
  • The study is limited only for a certain period of One year.)
  • There may be factors other than those studied in this research that may impact Crude oil prices.

A Study on Green accounting practices with reference to Indian Companies


  1.  To make studying the significance and utility of Green accounting and reporting in Indian Companies
  2. To examine and identify the shortcoming in the existing legal and accounting framework for Green accounting and reporting in India.
  3. To critically examine the Green accounting and reporting practices adopted by public and private sector Indian companies with special emphasis on post economic liberalization era.
  4. To find out the difference of opinions between public and private sector Indian companies relating to environmental challenges, protection, and management.
  5. To compare and contrast the accounting and managerial attitudes towards the nature and periodicity of disclosure, cost, and audit of Green accounting and reporting among Indian public and private sector companies.
  6. To suggest measures to streamline the existing Green accounting and reporting and to identify the future prospects of Green accounting and reporting in India in a fast-changing Industrial environment.


Public and private sector companies that play a vital role in the social responsibility of multifarious nature both have been included in this study. The present study covers only accounting and reporting on environmental aspects since the liberalization of the economy.

The method adopted to solve out the problems is based on the primary data. Primary data for this research work will be collected through questionnaires from the employees of public and private companies in India. There is little use of Secondary data gathered from government reports, journals, newspapers, magazines, and websites. The data so collected will properly be classified, tabulated, and analyzed according to the objectives of the study using the Percentage Method.


 The period for the study for doing the project work is one month.


In recent years, Environmental pollution becomes severe and the stakeholders are considerably worried about the issue which paved the way for the growing concern about the implementation of green accounting. In this paper, an attempt is made to discuss the theoretical foundation of green accounting and reporting practices with special reference to India. Green accounting and awareness have given more important as it is the need of the day.

Objectives of Green Accounting

The objectives of green accounting and reporting are as follows:

  1. To help in the negotiation of the concept of environment and to determine the enterprise’s relationship with society as a whole and the green pressure group in particular.
  2. To segregate and collaborate all Environmental related flows and stocks of resources.
  3. To minimize green impacts through improved product and process design.
  4. To ensure effective and efficient management of natural resources.


  1. To make studying the significance and utility of Green accounting and reporting in Indian Companies
  2. To examine and identify the shortcoming in the existing legal and accounting framework for Green accounting and reporting in India.
  3. To critically examine the Green accounting and reporting practices adopted by public and private sector Indian companies with special emphasis on post economic liberalization era.
  4. To find out the difference of opinions between public and private sector Indian companies relating to green challenges, protection, and management.
  5. To compare and contrast the accounting and managerial attitudes towards the nature and periodicity of disclosure, cost, and audit of Green accounting and reporting among Indian public and private sector companies.
  6. To suggest measures to streamline the existing Green accounting and reporting and to identify the future prospects of Green accounting and reporting in India in a fast-changing Industrial environment.


Research Design:

Public and private sector companies that play a vital role in the social responsibility of multifarious nature both have been included in this study. The present study covers only accounting and reporting on green aspects since the liberalization of the economy.

A Study on Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) with reference to selected Banking Stocks traded at BSE

 Project synopsis


The Study on the capital asset pricing model in equity shares of banking companies will be undertaken with the objective of getting an insight into the concept of investments, market risk, security market line, undervalued and overvalued stocks, the risks, and the returns. The study aims to determine the market risk involved in the investments and the factors affecting the market risk and to determine the required rate of returns. The other objectives of the study are to observe the security market line and the degree of volatility of the Banking industry and undervalued and overvalued stocks.


  • To observe the risk-free rate and evaluate the relationship between risk and return involved in equity share prices of the banking industry.
  • To observe the significant risk of shares (market risk or systematic risk).
  • To observe the relationship between the security market line and the capital market line
  • To develop the inputs required for applying the capital asset pricing model.
  • To produce a benchmark for evaluating various investments and finding out whether the stocks are under or overvalued. 


Method of data collection:

 The Historical data of share prices for the period of one year will be collected from the BSE index for the study.

Source of data

Secondary data will be collected from respective websites like Bseindia.com, Moneycontrol.com, and other financial Journals. 

Period of the study

The study will be done for a period of 30-40 days.

Data analysis tools:

Appropriate data tools like Beta, Mean, and Standard deviation will be used.  


  • The study will be based on secondary data only.
  • The study will be limited to banking stocks only
  • The time for the project is limited to 30-40 days


The study covers information related to the equities share of the banking sector. It also covers the systematic risk and unsystematic risks of banking companies. The study is confined to only one Sector i.e., the banking industry, and the entire study is based on their Stock prices for a period of the last two years. The present study gives an insight into this issue by analyzing the capital asset pricing model Analysis in Equity share prices of the Banking industry.

A Study of Fundamental Analysis on Selected Stocks Project


Fundamental value or intrinsic value is very important in doing an investment. The intrinsic value of the stock does not refer to market value but refers to the natural value of the stock. Through fundamental analysis, we can arrive at the fundamental value of the stock which enhances the understanding of different stock to investors. Fundamental value or intrinsic value is the actual value of the stock which can be derived from fundamental analysis and this value is very important at the time of investment to take a rational decision in investing in a stock. Fundamental analysis of stock also brings in elements like discounting, future projected projects are discounted in relation to the time value of money to find out the actual value of the stock. While investing in different stocks clear analysis is a need, without clear and rational analysis decision making will become very complex, to make it more easy and accurate fundamental analysis can be used.


Investment is a major decision in an organization because it involves financial input and there is a certain return expected out of it. investment should give a return which is good and satisfy the expectation of the investor. The Stock meeting the expectations of the investor depends on the investment pattern the investor is using. There are multiple stocks to analyze before taking an investment decision, this analyzing process is tedious and needs a lot of standards and proven expertise and if this proven technique is not used accordingly can be misleading can lead the investor to invest in a non-performing stock. Fundamental analysis brings out the true value of a stock when used procedurally that is the intrinsic value of the stock to support the investment decision of the investor rationally. Stocks are very complex to understand and they are highly fluctuating depending on the market, to analyze them and compare them to come to decision for investment is challenging and needs a lot of expertise.


  1. To know how fundamental analysis tools are used to predict the future behavior of the stocks
  2. To analyze the performance of selected stocks.
  3. To determine economic value added and market value added.
  4. To offer suggestions based on the analysis of the study.


The study is totally dependent on the data collected from the secondary sources. The study is totally dependent on the accuracy of the data collected from the secondary sources, the study will give the investors in detail analysis of the stock.





This part of the study gives a picture about the introduction of the topic.


This part of the study contains the view of old literature on the topic and the research methodology adopted.


This figure outs the type of organization and its transaction.


It includes the calculation and interpretation of the data.


This describe about the findings and conclusions about the topic and the recommendation for the study.

MBA Project on Working Capital Management


Many finance managers, who are quite at home and competent in dealing with long term decisions, such as capital investments experience difficulties when they have to scout for funds to meet the day to day working needs. With bank finance getting increasingly scare, regulated and expensive the emphasis has shifted to closer attention to internal generation of funds and the development of the enterprises ability to raise funds in the market.


Working capital can be defined as the amount at funds, which a Company must have to finance tits day-to-day operations. It can also be regarded as that proportion of the companies’ total capital, which is employed in “current liabilities” which are short term assets that are normally expected to get converted into cash within a year. Current liabilities are short term liabilities maturing for the payment within a short period say one year, and they partly support the investment in current assets. In other words they serve as a source of working capital.

Net working capital is defined as the difference between current assets And current liabilities, and represents the extent to which current assets are financed by long-term funds.

Working capital management is the process of administration of current assets and current liabilities within the policy guidelines of the company.

Working capital policy is concerned with basic policy decisions regarding. The target levels each category of current assets.

The methods of financing the current assets

Current assets in many cases constitute more than half of the total Assets employed In business and therefore, it is essential to evolve an appropriate working capital policy to suit the specific needs of the firm an manage its working capital accordingly. Current liabilities that are specifically financing current assets come under the preview of working capital policy.

These are distinct from current liabilities which are consequences of past long term financing decisions, such as current maturates of long term debt or those in nature of temporary financing of capital projects which will be subsequently funded by long term sources off finance.

The aim in working capital management and policy is to maintain a proper balance between the magnitude of working capital and the general scale of operations of the company and to determine, with reference therefore, the appropriate levels of components of current assets to be maintained and the pattern of financing them.


The importance of working capital management can be. Traced to the following main considerations.

a) Current assets constitute the dominant segment of the total assets employed in most business and, therefore, require more intense and careful managerial attention.

b) The investment in current assets and level of current liabilities are very sensitive to changes in sale and the funds requirements shifts rapidly, demanding quick short-term decisions to sustain smooth operations.

C) Through profitability and proper selection of investments are essential for the long fun prosperity of the business, its short-term survival depends on its liquidity or ability to meet short-term obligations fully and promptly. The precondition for liquidity is efficient management of the elements of working capital and the ability to raise sufficient short and long-term finance. The finance managers of companies will have to devote considerable time and energy in arranging short term financing obtaining favorable credit terms from the suppliers of goods and services, deciding on credit policies for credit sales, keeping n chech on the funds blocked in inventories and monitoring and directing the movement of cash in the business.


• The objective of the study is to know the short term financial position of the Cement Company with Working Capital Management.
• To, identify the limitations in management of the Cement Company and suggestions to overcome those limitations.
• To provide a conceptual frame work and theoretical perception about the performance of Cement Company.
• To provide credit facilities to the customers
• To pay wages and salaries to the employees working in the organization.
• To know the day-to-day expenses.


For, the purpose of the study, the data collected from primary and Secondary has sanitized edited and presented in the form of tables and statements. The analysis of the data has been made with the help of certain mathematical techniques lie percentages etc. Where ever feasible and appropriate graphs and diagrams are used.

The collection of data is done through two principles sources viz

1. Primary Data
2. Secondary Data


It is the information collected directly without any reference. In the study, it mainly interviews with concerned officers and staff either individually or collectively. Some of the information had been verified or supplemented with personal observation, the data collected through conducting personal interview with the officer of the Cement Company.


When an investigator uses the data which is already been collected by other, that data is called secondary data. Such as pamphlets annual reports, return and internal records.

The data includes:

1. Collection of required data from annual report of Cement Company.
2. Reference from text book and journals relating to financial management.
3. Articles published in business dailies like economic times, Business world, and etc.


The limitations of present study are as follows:

1. Due to the time constraint the study is confined to the assessment of working capital management only.
2. Data collected for 5 years which is limited.
3. The study is confined to the secondary source of data and figures are taken from the annual reports and suggestions of various accountants.
4. The data which is used in this project are taken from the annual reports, published at the end of the year.
5. The study is limited to the period of 5 Years.