Captcha using Grid Colors Project


In the current world, the Internet is being widely for every activity we can think of and it ranges from online communication to e-commerce, education, health, sports and a variety of other things. Progress in any field has its own problems and in the world of web applications and websites, one of the primary concerns is bots accessing this application thereby severely hampering performance as well as crashing the availability of a system. In order to tackle this widespread problem, CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Human Apart) was introduced in the early 2000s to protect internet applications against bots. In the present world, most of the commercial websites are equipped with the CAPTCHA functionality to overcome any imminent attacks. However, a common complaint has been related to the ease of solving CAPTCHAs by users of the web applications. Several methods of CAPTCHA functionality have been introduced and each of them has their own positives and drawbacks. The goal of a CAPTCHA solution should help users in resolving it fairly while being strong to counter-attack automated responses. With this project, the goal is to introduce a new CAPTCHA method with grid colors where the user will be prompted to draw a specific colored line based on the instructions provided in the interface.


With the arrival of the World Wide Web technology, everything we can think of has been made available on the internet through websites and web applications and it is only growing with each minute at a rapid speed. This technology has been embraced by people all over the world which allows for easy communication and accessibility to a variety of information.

However, with increasing popularity automated solutions known as bots have been developed to attack these web applications. To counter these attacks the CAPTCHA solution was introduced with the focus being on both securities as well as ease of use for end users. CAPTCHA is generally a web page that poses the user with a challenge that could be resolved based on instructions provided.

The goal here is to block automated machines from performing activities such as registrations, automated feedback, spam and other resource blocking activities. A variety of CAPTCHA solutions based on text, image, and audio interfaces have been made available to users. Some of these solutions are easy targets for the bots depending on how they have been implemented.

The challenge lies in developing a CAPTCHA that meets ease of use requirements while not compromising on application safety. The proposed solution will be a web page with a grid interface provided to the users along with instructions on how to solve the CAPTCHA. The grid interface will contain multiple colors scrambled across the grid and user is instructed to draw a line through the mentioned colors or path in the textual hint.

The colors and the grid will be designed to look intuitive enough for the users and drawing the line is something that will make the users feel comfortable and it will be difficult for the bots to crack. An example question for the user would be-”Draw a line connecting all green squares”.
II. RELATED WORK & existing solutions:

Variety of CAPTCHA solutions based on text, image, video, and audio have been made available to the users. Text-based CAPTCHA is being used widely and the CAPTCHA challenges are sometimes very hard to solve even by the human. All existing CAPTCHA challenges require a significant conscious effort by the person answering them — e.g. reading and typing a nonsense word.

Many existing CAPTCHAs irritate or threaten users since they are obvious tests of skill. Most existing CAPTCHAs are vulnerable to out” attacks in which challenges are passed to a networked community of human readers. There are some problems with the existing text-based CAPTCHAs, If it is simple text-based CAPTCHA then it can be easily solved by OCR (Optical character recognition) software and segmentation; If it is complex text-based CAPTCHA humans also may not be able to solve the challenge.There are six text-based challenges.

While the first two sets can be solved with some effort the third set is highly difficult for a human to solve. An ideal CAPTCHA solution should always be easy for the users to solve while not compromising on the security aspect. The proposed solution would be a 4*4 grid which is filled with different colored images in random sections. The user has to follow the provided instructions to solve this CAPTCHA.

This CAPTCHA has several advantages.

• It will be easy for humans to understand the challenge and solve the CAPTCHA since it is color based images that are being used in the grid.

• The user can solve this type of CAPTCHA in few seconds without any frustration or stress.

• Bots cannot solve this type of CAPTCHA because the grids are actually images of grid colors and not a direct fill.

III. The 4*4 grid will be generated with 16 identical square boxes.

  1. The grid will be filled using five grid colors (Red, Green, Blue, Yellow, and Black). The colors are images and not color codes.
  2. Red, Green, Yellow are selected out of the five to fill a total of 12 boxes in a random manner and each color occupying four boxes.
  3. Black and Blue are used to fill the remaining four square boxes. Combinations can be one Black, three Blue or two Black, two Blue and one Blue, three Black.
  4. CAPTCHA Challenge- Form a horizontal red line in row two using the red colored image.
  5. The user drags and drops the specified colored image as per instruction.
  6. Positions of the colored images are interchanged based on drag and drop moves.
  7. A line formation based on instruction will be deemed as successful CAPTCHA answer else it will be considered a failure.
  8. Failure will result in generation of a new CAPTCHA challenge.

Algorithm for the idea: 

  1. Step1: generate an image with random words
  2. Step2: in the generated image find the middle pixel (height of the image/2)
  3. Step3: separate images into two. One image will run through 00 to mid, width another will run through mid+1,0 to height, width
  4. Step4: place the separated images separately and allow the user to drag an image
  5. Step5: allow the user to type the captcha the response after hovering
  6. Step6: validate the user input

Teleconferencing and Videoconferencing System Reflection Essay

Investigate the various teleconferencing and videoconferencing system available to you:

Teleconferencing and videoconferencing is defined as a confrontation by the means of telecommunication medium. It is a universal medium for linking people from two or more locations


  • VOIP
  • LYNC


Teleconferencing has various types such as,

  • AUDIO [Voice only , also known as conference calling]
  • AUDIOGRAPHIC [Narrow band telecommunication channels are used to transmit information]
  • COMPUTER [Two or more computers are connected through telephone lines]
  • VIDEO [Combination of audio and video to provide voice communication and video image]

The technology may differ in each method but the ultimate point is to share the information from different people in different locations.


It is a manipulation of video conference by a specified group of telecommunication technology, which allows two or more people in various location to interact concurrently through too and fro video and audio transmissions.

The basic technology handled in video conferencing technology is digital compression of audio and video streaming in real time. The hardware or the software which achieve compression is known as codec (coder – decoder).

The main benefit of Teleconferencing is its resilience and affability, for means if we don’t have any video equipment such as webcam etc.


Voice over Internet Protocol is a technology and set of methodology to convey voice communication and multimedia discussions over internet protocol. Due to bandwidth efficiency and less price that VoIP technology will provide. Companies are shifting from classical copper-wire telephonic system to voice over internet protocol to cut down their monthly phone costs.

2) Imagine you are applying for a job and attached a resume:

I have attached a e-mail copy as a screen shot attached my resume to it, so that I can explain briefly

I have attached my resume and also expressed my interest of joining in their esteemed organization and also I have shown my experience and key skills that matches with the job description which act as the added advantage for my profile.






Write a short tutorial on how to perform a task in Microsoft word.

  • To perform a task in Microsoft, the basic step is to click the “START” button from the desktop and type as Microsoft office in the search bar
  • Once you find the Microsoft office in the list provided in the menu, click the mouse button by keeping the cursor on the symbol provided below.
  • The Microsoft word page opens once the above icon is clicked and we are ready to create a word document.
  • In this page we can see various tools provided which are used to create a word document of our desire, the most basic and important tools are
  • Font Style
  • Font Size

B) Stands for Bold Letters

  • (I) : Stands for Italic
  • (U): Stands for Underline
  • Even we can insert images in our word document by clicking the insert menu at the top of the Paige and selecting the picture option in it, by this we can select the desired image which is saved in our Laptop/Desktop.
  • Even if we want to create a table in order to show the values of different items we can insert a table by selecting the table icon from the insert option.
  • With the help of the page layout option it is possible to align margin for your word document and also to set the size and columns for the document.

DBMS Course Project

Project report

The DBMS Course Project report must contain the following items

  1. Introduction
  • Give a description of the application and the database system

     2. ER data model design

  • Design the ER data model of the database in detail. o List the entities and their attributes.

o  Specify the domain of each attribute.

o Specify the properties of each attribute (i.e., key, composite/simple, single-valued/multi-valued, derived, incomplete with different nulls, roles, weak/strong entity type, etc.).

o  Specify the relationships and their attributes.

o List the properties of each relationship (i.e., degree of the relationship, cardinality ratios (1-1, 1-N, N-M), participation constraints (total, partial), other application-specific constraints, etc.).

  • Draw the E-R diagram, and incorporate everything discussed above into the E-R diagram.
  1. Logical design of the database
  • Map the ER diagram into a relational model following the ER to Relational model algorithm.

o  Each entity should map to a (entity) relation.

o Each relationship should be accounted for either represented in an entity relation or as a separate relation

o Each entity/relationship attribute should be accounted for in the transformation.

o List for each relation the primary/candidate keys, foreign keys. o Specify the entity and referential integrity constraints

  1. Relational Database Design
  • Perform normalization: if the relations are not in BCNF or 3NF, apply the algorithms to decompose and make them BCNF/3NF.

o Please note that your decompositions should be lossless and dependency preserving.

  1. Implementation of Database and SQL Query
  • A description of the creation of the database schema and instance
  • Provide the SQL statements that create your tables and populate your tables.
  • Provide the SQL statements that query the database
  1. Application design
  • A description of the application programs and all tasks.
  • Provide source code
  1. User guide
  2. Window snapshots of the use of the program for each function

Project presentation: You will give the demo of the system in the class


  • Project report: 35%
  • Design: 30%
  • Implementation: 35%

Project Description:

This DBMS course project provides you with an opportunity to have some experience in programming with a real database system. In the project, you will create a database with large volume of data using a DBMS of your choice, and write SQL programs to populate, manipulate and query the database, and create a user interface for the application.

Consider the operations of a library system in the different neighborhoods of a city. The library has many readers who borrow books from one of its many branches. The following are descriptions for a simplified library system.

  1. The library records information about books that are available in its system. Each book is identified by a unique number (BookId.) It also has a title, author, an ISBN, a publisher, and a publication date.
  2. Each book has a single publisher and the publisher address is also recorded.
  3. Information about the authors of books is maintained. An author is identified by a number () The name of each author is also recorded.
  4. The library system contains several branches, which are identified by a number (LibId). We also need to store the name and the location of each branch. Each branch of the library holds a number of copies of a particular book. Each copy of the same book kept by the same library branch is numbered from 1 to n. The total number of copies of each book in the library is needed.
  5. The library system keeps track of all readers who are uniquely identified by ReaderId. Each reader has a name, an address, and a phone number. A reader has to be registered in the database before borrowing a document.
  6. Readers have access to the online catalogue of books and may reserve books by title if they are available. A reserved book has to be picked up before 6 pm; otherwise, the reservation is cancelled. A reader cannot borrow or reserve more than 10 books.
  1. Borrowing is defined as taking out a copy of a book on one date and time (BDateTime) and returning it a maximum of 20 days later. RDateTime is the date and time on which the copy of the borrowed book is actually returned. (RDateTime is NULL if the document has not yet been returned). Books have to be returned to the branch from which they are borrowed.
  1. The same copy of a book can be reserved and/or borrowed by the same reader several times.
  2. Books that are not returned on time are fined at a rate of 20 cents for each day after the due date.
  3. A copy of a book cannot be lent to more than one reader at a time, but a reader can borrow multiple copies of books.

Your task is to design the database and application programs that will help manage the book inventory and the day-to-day processing. You can make further assumptions but: (a) they should not be in contradiction with the assumptions described above, and (b) they have to be clearly stated in your report. Note that many functions are left out in order to reduce the size and the complexity of the project.

You are to develop a menu driven application system for the public library system database. The following are the menus to be developed. All applications described below must be implemented. If you want, you may add more functions and menus.

1) Main menu:

Reader functions (ask for card number, and then show sub-menu). Administrative Functions (ask for ID and password, and then show submenu). Quit.

2) Reader Functions Menu:

Search a book by ID, title, or publisher name. Book checkout

Book return Book reserve

Compute fine for a book copy borrowed by a reader based on the current date. Print the list of book reserved by a reader and their status.

Print the book id and titles of books published by a publisher. Quit.

3) Administrative Functions Menu: Add a book copy.

Search book copy and check its status. Add new reader.

Print branch information (name and location).

Print top 10 most frequent borrowers in a branch and the number of books each has borrowed.

Print top 10 most borrowed books in a branch. Find the average fine paid per reader.


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