The research paper Purpose of Cryptography and Network Security CSE Final Year Seminar explains what Authentication is. It says that Authentication is the process of proving one’s identity. (The primary forms of host-to-host authentication on the Internet today are name-based or address-based, both of which are notoriously weak.) . The following techniques have been mentioned and meticulously explained in the research paper.
Some experts argue that cryptography appeared spontaneously sometime after writing was invented, with applications ranging from diplomatic missives to war-time battle plans. It is no surprise, then, that new forms of cryptography came soon. after the widespread development of computer communications. In data and telecommunications, cryptography is necessary when communicating over any untrusted medium, which includes just about any network, particularly the Internet.
- Privacy/confidentiality: Ensuring that no one can read the message except the intended receiver.
- Integrity: Assuring the receiver that the received message has not been altered in any way from the original.
- Non-repudiation: A mechanism to prove that the sender really sent this message.
The advantage of traditional cryptography is that it is usually much faster than public-key cryptography.
The main cryptography techniques mentioned in the paper are:
- Block Ciphers
- Stream Ciphers
- Message Authentication Codes
The paper explains that In CBC mode each plaintext block is XOR’d with the previous cipher text block before it is encrypted. Because there is no previous cipher text for the first block, an 8-byte block known as the Initial Chaining Value (ICV) is used to start the process. Patterns in the plaintext are hidden by the exclusive-OR. The ICV should be different for any messages encrypted with the same key, but it does not have to be kept secret and can be transmitted with the encrypted text.
Nearly all modern multi-user computer and network operating systems employ passwords at the very least to protect and authenticate users accessing computer and/or network resources. But passwords are not typically kept on a host or server in plaintext, but are generally encrypted using some sort of hash scheme.
The research paper ends on a note that what CRYPTOGRAPHY Can Do.
It says that potentially, cryptography can hide information while it is in transit or storage. In general, cryptography can:
- Provide SECRECY.
- AUTHENTICATE that a message has not changed in transit.
- Implicitly authenticate the sender.
Cryptography hides words: At most, it can only hide talking about contraband or illegal actions. One possible application for cryptography is to secure on-line communications between work and home, perhaps leading to a society-wide reduction in driving, something that all appreciate.
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