Scattering Parameters Of Circulator Btech Bio Technology Project

This Scattering Parameters Of Circulator Btech Bio-Technology Project report is about Scattering Parameters of Circulator. The report starts with AIM description with its measure, the first measure is Insertion loss, the second measure is Isolation and the third is determining S parameters.

The EQUIPMENT contains Microwave  Source (RKO/GO), Isolator, Variable Attenuator, Frequency meter, Slotted line, Tunable probe with the detector, detector mount with the detector, VSWR meter, Circulator and  Matched Terminations-2.

The theory consist of the circulator is a multi-port junction that permits transmission in certain ways. The wave incident at the nth port can be coupled to (n+1) the port only.

Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. Scattering parameters or S-parameters describe the electrical behavior of linear electrical networks when undergoing various steady state stimuli by electrical signals.

The parameters are used for electrical engineering, electronics engineering, and communication systems design. Historically, an electrical network would have comprised a ‘black box’ containing various interconnected basic electrical circuit components or lumped elements such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transistors. The report also proves formulas which define S PARAMETERS and The S matrix of the circulator.


The report is also provided the flow chart description about BENCH SET-UP which helps to understand the details of SCATTERING PARAMETERS. The PROCEDURE explains the MEASUREMENT OF INSERTION LOSS, ISOLATION AND SCATTERING PARAMETERS and INPUT VSWR MEASUREMENT.

Some areas where scattering and scattering theory are significant to include radar sensing, medical ultrasound, semiconductor wafer inspection, polymerization process monitoring, acoustic tiling, free-space communications, and computer-generated imagery.

The description of scattering and the distinction between single and multiple scattering are often highly involved with wave-particle duality.

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