System Design & Development in Calculation of Response Time For Air Brake System

This System Design & Development in Calculation of Response Time For Air Brake System Final Year Mechanical Seminar paper discusses Air Muscles, essentially a robotic actuator which is replacing the conventional pneumatic cylinders at a rapid pace, it’s construction, principle of operation, operational characteristics and applications.


The project uses an Acuator which has high operational flexibility,safe and cost operational, the Air Muscles. These are integrated with human operations without any large scale safety requirements. Further more they offer extremely high power to weight ratio of about 400:1.

It has the possibility of direct connection to a robotic joint, i. e. without having to use any gears, because of their high output forces at all speeds.


  • Air Muscles areLighter in weight
  • Lower in Cost
  • Have Smooth and natural movement
  • Flexible and Powerful
  • Damped, compliant,Efficient and Fast.


  • The force which can be applied is only tensile in nature.
  • The efficiency of Air Muscles is not as good as electric motors.
  • Friction between the netting and the tube leads to a substantial hysteresis in the force-length characteristics.
  • Rubber deformation, like any material deformation, needs energy, which lowers the force output of this type of muscle up to 60%.


  • Humanoid robots
  • Artificial limbs
  • The Dexterous hands and
  • furthur development as Pleated Pneumatic Air Muscles [PPAMs]


The described Air muscles in this project, though not capable of offering an extremely wide range of operations, but in the case of artificial legs, humanoid robots etc offers a wide range of possibilities. With further developments in neural networks and sensor equipments, it might be possible replace an entire limb for an amputee and function normally like a natural limb would do. This project also discusses the future advancement that is likely to be made, i.e substitution of Air with nitrogen or other gases for maximum efficiency and better damping.

Download System Design & Development in Calculation of Response Time For Air Brake System.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *