The research paper Cryptography Computer Science Seminar for Students explains what cryptography is. It suggests that Cryptography presents various methods for taking legible, readable data, and transforming it into unreadable data for the purpose of secure transmission, and then using a key to transform it back into readable data when it reaches its destination.
The most secure techniques use a mathematical algorithm and a variable value known as a ‘key’. Cryptography uses a single key to encrypt i.e. changing data so that it is unrecognizable and useless to an unauthorized person and decrypt a message i.e. changing it back to its original form.
Ways to classify Cryptographic Algorithms: There are several ways of classifying cryptographic algorithms Secret Key Cryptography, which uses a single key for both encryption and decryption. Public Key Cryptography, which uses one key for encryption and another for decryption. Hash Functions uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly “encrypt” information.
Scope of Cryptography:
The goal of cryptography extends beyond merely making data unreadable; it also extends into user authentication, Privacy/confidentiality, Integrity, Non-repudiation.
The research paper identifies types of algorithms. They are mentioned in the paper as:
- Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption
- Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption
- Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly “encrypt” information
Application of Cryptography: It is suggested in the paper that Cryptography is used in:
- Secure Communication
- Identification and Authentication
- E-Commerce and
- Digital Signatures
The research paper concludes on a note that Cryptography is the gold standard for security. It is used to protect the transmission and storage of data between two parties by encrypting it into an unreadable format.
Cryptography has enabled the first wave of secure transmissions, which has helped fuel the growth of transactions like shopping, banking, and finance over the world’s biggest public network, the Internet.