Previously details of the importance of router usage in infrastructure were provided based on case studies. However by inserting the flow of transport protocols or by translation, other entities called the middle boxes affected the quality of voice packets. IP tunnel, endpoints, markets, proxies, caches, transport relays, etc are widely used to types of middle boxes. (HIP Research group, 2006).This is generally known to public as stumbling blocks to an efficient VoIP communication. The more common terminology for the middle boxes is the VoIP across Network Address Translators,(HIP Research Group,2006) will be discussed next.

Below are certain recommendations made for SMBR: A novel NAT traversal mechanism for structured Peer-to-Peer communications with regards to the security activities that are intrinsic to traversal of NAT mechanisms (HIP Research group, 2006):

To create NAT bindings that are highly sensitive with reference to security actions and opening pinholes in firewalls (i.e., as mentioned earlier regarding firewall rules, allowing packets to traverse).

Using UDP encapsulation to correlate outgoing and incoming signal values reduces complexity of the overall protocol.

NAT extension utility.


The report will include a few successful techniques utilized by the end user and hop by hop authentication techniques (Computer Society, 2006).

“Longer IP addresses, 128 bits compared to 32bits: There has been a growth of over 4billion and will continue to grow up to 9billion by 2050, not to include the cross-layered architectural functions which could be sole cause of such increase.

New Support options and data integrity extensions to regulate the traffic flow labeling of packets is a useful option, known as flow labeling capacity. Processing power increases if the headers are simplified. Plug and play automatic configurations are auctioned for a faster VoIP transfer known as a automatic configuration.

The technique that carries information to be processed on each and every node along with a packet traversal path is known as Hop-by-Hop.