Introduction to GSM Technology seminar Paper Presentation:

Types of cells: The different types of cells are macro cells, micro cells, selective cells, umbrella cells.

GSM network identifiers: These are the unique numbers that a GSM network uses to locate a mobile subscriber when a call is being established. Numbering plans are used to identify different networks.

International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI): For correct identification over radio path and through the GSM PLMN network, a specific identity is attached to each subscriber. This identity is called IMSI number. It is stored in SIM card, the HLR and in VLR. IMSI consists of three different parts – Mobile Country Code (MCC), Mobile Network Code (MNC), and Mobile Subscribers Identification Number (MSIN).

Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN): This is a temporary identity which is assigned during the establishment of a call to roaming subscribers.

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI): It is a temporary IMSI number and used to protect the subscriber’s identity on the air interface. The TMSI has local significance only.

International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI): This is used to uniquely identify MS equipment to the network. It is used for security procedures such as identifying stolen equipment and preventing unauthorized access to the network.

Local Area Code (LAI): It is temporary identity, which is also required for routing. Its two main purposes are paging and location updating.

Cell Global Identity (CGI): It is used for identifying individual cells within a LA.

Base Station Identity Code (BSIC): It enables MSs to distinguish between different base stations sending on the same frequency.

Control channels: When an MS is switched on, it searches for a BTS to connect to. It is done by particular logical channel called BCCH. A frequency carrying BCCH contains important information for an MS, including the current LA identity, synchronization information and network identity. Without such information, MS cannot work with a network.

Handovers: The process of changing cells during a call is called handovers. In the handover function, actual switching of the connection to other channel takes place. If the cell belong to another BSC, the MSC is also involved in the handover. Handover is also used for load balancing between the cells. During a call setup in a congested cell, the MS can be forced over to another cell with less traffic.

Future of GSM: Today it is being used by 2.3 billion people worldwide and its growth is expected to be maintained.

Generation: The generations used are HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data), GPRS (General Packet Radio Services), EDGE (Enhances Data Rate for GSM Evolution), and WCDMA (Wideband CDMA)

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