Spreading the transmitted symbols in OFDM across the STC-MIMO in Frequency Selective Rayleigh Fading Channels


Here it expand this spreading idea through symbols  in the scheme of OFDM by spreading matrices of unitary which depends on the rotated DFT (discrete Fourier transform) or matrices of rotated Hadmund  stated in  literature  to use STC-MIMO-OFDM (Space-Time Coded Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OFDM ) schemes.

It refers the resulting schemes to STC-MIMO-BOFDM (STC-MIMO Block spread OFDM) system’s multidimensional diversity which includes space, frequency; time as well as modulation diversities utilized which results fine bit error implementation in a selective frequency. Additive white gausian channels fading channels this is compared to the traditional OFDM systems including or without STC’s recreation passed out with the Alamouti code confirm the benefit of the stated STC-MIMO-BOFDM systems.


OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) had been intensively thought in literature with passing signals across fading channels of frequency selective. The main benefit of this method which is evaluated to one carrier modulation to facilitate high data rates issue by relevant less complexity receiver needs only FFT (Fourier transform) processor tracked by one tap equalizes on single carrier system because  sub carriers orthogonal excludes multipath from being collaborated over the passage at the sign level.

The use of spreading matrices to mix the passed symbols linearly over the sub channels it is considered for one wireless communications of antenna system in the literature the main benefit of utilizing spreading machines that it permits to gain diversity across selective channels of frequency fading.

Unitary spreading machines this is based on the turned Discrete Fourier transform or rotated Hadamund matrices to develop one antenna OFDM performance schemes was initially established by Bury and remaining was analyzed by MC cloud.

The utilization of receive antennas and multiple transmit will improve the ability of wireless communication systems. These schemes are known MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) schemes. STCS (Apace Time Codes) are the codes planned for the usage of MIMO systems. Space-Time Trellis Codes, Bell Lab Layered Space-Time (BLAST), STBCs (Space-Time Block Codes) are different STCs kinds.

The cooperation of MIMO systems by STCS with OFDM techniques this accepted a attention fair amount in literature .Moreover this combinations mostly uses STCS by block spread OFMS method this is not considered as the combination is mainly used to increase the scheme performance with the vaguely more cost complex receiver and transmitter configuration.

It is mainly focus on the expansion of idea of Block spread OFDM which was already mentioning in above, use to the scheme of MIMOOFDM by STCs. It calls resultant method STC-MIMO-BOFDM to differentiate the standard MIMO-OFDM without block spreading. It is signified that the provision “spreading “ this is inherited through the above to communicate the expansion of modulation rater then the bandwidth expansion .

In this it mainly discuss about the  novel contributions 1) the comparison of error performance between the traditional OFDM and STC-MIMO-BOFDM 2) Here it uses the   Alamouti code  for the more detailed  derivation Simple maximum Likelihood (SMl) of decoding  technique  for stated TCMIMO-BOFDM system. The block spreading application method to traditional STC-MIMO-OFDM system recover the error recital of the STC-MIMO_OFDM systems, Systems (, BOFDM systems and without block spreading (STC-MIMO-OFDM systems).

Here it exploits the spatial dimension by applying several antennas on the side of the interaction this is a great result to highly improved efficiency of bandwidth. The information research theoretical this is revealed the multipath channel of wireless is  capable of huge capacities offered that the multipath scattering is very rich, Scattering of multipath I s properly exploited by the use of the suitable processing architecture.

The diagonally layered space-time architecture is stated in called as Diagonal blast in this approaching below figure .The diagonal approach‘s detector is moreover is very complicated    and it is tough to implement. So BLAST simplified version, this I known as vertical Blast or else V-blast.

Source Code:


clear all
close all
k = sqrt(m);
r = 2*(0:k-1) – k + 1;
[xi, yi] = meshgrid(r);
c = xi + i*flipud(yi);
for SNR=4:step:20
if SNR==20 N=2*10^3; end;
for it=1:N
C1=[s1 s2;-s2 s1];
C=[C1; conj(C1)];
H1=[K(1) K(2); K(2) -K(1)];
H=[H1 conj(H1)];
R=[R(1:2)’; conj(R(3:4)’)];
R1=[ abs(Qmm-S(1)); abs(Qmm-S(2))];

figure,semilogy(4:step:20, Berr,’rx-‘);
grid on;title(‘Optimal Performance of MIMO system with ML decoding’);


The methods which are based on multiplexing transmit signals across several antennas across space which can be occupied under the more general term Space division Multiplexing (SDM) or Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA).SDMA methods search the spatial dimension by using several antennas to pass. Fundamentally these methods simultaneously pass different signal son various antennas at the same carrier frequency.

Thee parallel streams f data are combined with the air but it is recovered at the recover by using sophisticated processing algorithms, this mainly needs multiple antennas to receive those guarantees the adequate error performance. The difference between SDMA and SDM is that it permits various users to pass simultaneously on single antenna in other hand in SDM here single user pass simultaneously on several antennas .Here it also explains about Hybrid schemes.

It is a fact that in these SDMA methods will differ from conventional several access techniques. Most of the differences are pointing out at first the entire channel bandwidth used by an SDMA system is higher than other symbol rate this is identical to bandwidth which is needed by a traditional single carrier transmission method like  Amplitude modulation.

Secondly Frequency division multiple access here every transmitted signal captures the total system bandwidth. Ultimately the total system bandwidth is utilized simultaneously by all transmitters at all the time. These variations together are explained about the efficiencies of using different algorithms.

Time division multiple access (TDMS) the total system bandwidth is utilized by all the transmitters. These deviation together are accordingly this give SDM the potential to realize greater bandwidth efficiencies than the other different multiple access methods.

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