In mobile communication networks we find antennas which work in Omni directional pattern. Due to Omni direction antennas the signals gets transmitted in all the directions but due to this we cannot find the same signal strength in all the directions.
As all the antennas are Omni directional we find interference of the signals due to which the signal disturbances occur. So as to transmit the signal in a particular direction we need to use smart antennas in this Smart Antenna Technology for Mobile Communication Systems paper we will see how smart antennas work and the principle behind the transmission of the signals.
Brief on smart antennas:
By using this antenna we can emit the beam of the spectrum to the particular user only and it allows us to separate the users by space division multiple access technique.
By using switching lobes which consists of basic switching functions by which we can separate the directive paths of the projected beams of the directive antennas. In order to use the received signal from the user we need to use dynamically phased arrays.
To decide the antenna pattern in up link and down link directions the array elements are calculated based on the complex weights which are done by signal processing unit.
To meet the growing traffic needs we need to use smart antennas by which the potentiality of the network increases. By introducing the smart antennas we can increase the capacity of the time division multiple access systems by three times and we can find five times increase in code division multiple access technique.
The major drawbacks of smart antennas are the increase in transceiver complexity and difficulty in radio management. By using smart antennas we can use the radiation pattern in a specified direction by which we can improve the quality of communication.