Various Methods of Evapotranspiration Bio Tech Project

This Various method of Evapotranspiration BioTech Project report is about Evapotranspiration and its methods. The report consists of 4 chapters which contain Introduction of Evapotranspiration, Literature review, various methods of Evapotranspiration and a case study of Srisailam Left Bank Canal. The chapter first defined the general details of Evapotranspiration and its Necessity, factors affecting Evapotranspiration and objectives.Evapotranspiration is a key part of the hydrologic cycle.

Some water evaporates directly from soils and water bodies, but much is returned to the atmosphere by transpiration (a word combining transport and evaporation) from plants via openings in the leaves called stomata. Within the same climates, forests and lakes yield about the same amount of water vapor. The amount of Evapotranspiration is dependent on energy inputs of heat, wind, humidity, and the amount of stored soil water. In climate studies, this term is used to indicate levels of surplus or deficit in water budgets. Aridity may be defined as an excess of potential Evapotranspiration over actual precipitation, while in humid regions the amount of runoff correlates well with the surplus of precipitation over Evapotranspiration.

The methods of Evapotranspiration are as follows:

•           Modified penman method

•           Jensen-Haise method

•           Hargreaves method

•           Thornthwaite method,

•           Blaney-criddle method

•           Hargreaves class A pan evaporation methods


This report addresses with Evapotranspiration of SLBC using methods of Evapotranspiration, out of the various available methods penman’s method is the best method as it contains more number of parameters which are not available with the other methods in estimation of Evapotranspiration.

Using the methods of Modified penman method, Jensen-Haise method, Hargreaves method, Thornthwaite method, Blaney-criddle method, Hargreaves class A pan evaporation methods, calculations Evapotranspiration will be done based on the values obtain will calculate the percentage of error with reference to modified penman method the value of error will be correlated to the other systems and rankings will be given based upon the percentage of error obtained.

Production of ethanol using molasses and its effluent treatment

Production of ethanol using molasses and  its effluent treatment is a project report which begin with introduction which explain the A Chronological profile of Mohan Me akin Introduction Organizational Structure and its contents are Fermentation, Distillation, Production of Liquor, Effluent Treatment Plant, Brewery House, Water Treatment Plant, Products of MOHAN MEAKIN  Limited.

The introduction part explains the history of MEAKIN products. Ethanol is also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol. Ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with barm.  Which process is more economical depends on prevailing prices of petroleum and grain feed stocks.

The study proposes some simple but effective throughput-approximation methods for finite-buffered closed-loop production systems with unreliable machines and exponentially distributed processing times. The proposed approximation methods are based on disintegration and aggregation principles. The processing of molasses produces large quantity of liquid effluent called ‘SPENT WASH’.

The treatment of spent wash takes place in the EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT. The fermentation is derived from the Latin word fervrve, which means boiling. However, events of boiling came into existence from the fact that during the alcoholic fermentation the bubble of CO2 gas bursts at the surface of boiling liquid and give the watery appearance.


M/s MOHAN MEAKIN LIMITED, LUCKNOW is leading manufacturer of beverage of the sort country liquor, foreign liquor, beer and denatured spirit. Hence this is a potable distillery. The metabolic process of yeast Ethanol is a byproduct. As such ethanol will be present in any yeast habitat. Ethanol can commonly be found in overripe fruit.

Ethanol produced by symbiotic yeast can be found in Bertam Palm blossoms. Although some species such as the Pen tailed Treeshrew exhibit ethanol seeking behaviors, most show no interest or avoidance of food sources containing ethanol. Ethanol is also produced during the germination of many plants as a result of natural anerobiosis. Ethanol has been detected in outer space, forming an icy coating around dust grains in interstellar clouds.

Renewable Energy Technology Management Promoting Village Project Report

The objective of this Renewable Energy Technology Management Promoting Village Project Report contains the analysis between the technology and the society concerned. The report prepared using structured group discussions with villagers.

It includes the use of different techno-social aspect as a tool in the development of the Gasifier project in the Radhapur. This project presents a chronological description of the events that have taken place in development of the gasifier technology for electricity generation in the village for its development.

Chapter I consist of Introduction which provides the context of the village profile, approaches and activities of the project. It also describes the three phases of the projects along with their achievements.

Chapter II is about the TECHNOLOGY SELECTION which starts with answering the reason for selecting Gasifier technology for Radhapur and ends with describing the technology and its capacity. Chapter III is the Methodology section, it is most significant of all, as it describes about “Techno-Social Intervention” which is the important phase of the project.

This chapter highlights the various issues visualized at different phases of the project and tries to answer them in a very socio-economic and rational manner and realize the actual view of society towards the development of technology.

The achievements and success section is Chapter IV, which gives the brief of the achievements and success achieved so far in providing electricity to the villagers, certain innovative ideas for efficient maintenance of Plant load and promotion of enterprise for the overall sustainable development. The report concludes with the lesson learnt from this tiny part of the overall big project.


The outcome of this report would benefit the readers with the learning’s of the Techno-social intervention in any rural development program.

This report enables various possible value addition of the pooled produce in such a way so as to fetch the best possible component of the technology. The basic strategy adopted here is collectivization of the villagers and making them understand the aim of the program.

Primary Treatment Of Waste Water Fundamental Of Environmental Engineering

This Primary Treatment Of Waste Water Fundamental Of Environmental Engineering project report is about the Treatment of Waste water Fundamental. The process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff and domestic is called Wastewater treatment. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its target is to develop an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream and a solid waste, suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer).

Under Preliminary “Treatment” define about Equalization to Smooth out fluctuations in flow rate. The Flow Measurement contains efficient operation, chemical addition, etc. After pumping, the plant is designed to operate under gravity flow to the point of discharge at the receiving stream. The Primary treatment includes Bar screen, Comminatory, Grit chamber, Primary clarifier. The report defines the details of each Primary treatment separately.

The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of waste water is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment for the later use of drinking, bathing, irrigation, etc. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the quality of the water being treated for example cloudiness, pH, etc. Types of disinfection being used, the disinfectant dosage, and other environmental variables. Cloudy water will be treated less successfully, since solid matter can shield organisms, especially from ultraviolet light or if contact times are low. Generally, short contact times, low doses and high flows all militate against effective disinfection.


As per the common methods of disinfection include ozone, chlorine, ultraviolet light, or sodium hypochlorite. After multiple steps of disinfection, the treated water is ready to be released back into the water cycle by means of the nearest body of water or agriculture. Afterwords, the water can be transferred to reserves for everyday human uses. The pictorial presentation of Primary treatment is helps to understand the concept of the Treatment of Waste water.