Electro active polymers can withstand high present in the deep seas. These polymers are used as skins for devices so that the devices with the pressures in the under water. Electro active polymers have benefits of high coupling efficiency and low cost of availability. The electro active polymer shows good characteristics even under pressures upto 100 mpa. In this paper will see the design and the experimental testing of the polymers.
Brief on electro active polymers:
These are used as transducers for high power sonar’s so as to undergo high pressures. The electro active polymers are prepared from elastomeric actuator. These actuators are formed from two flexible elastic electrodes which sandwich an electrically insulated elastomeric. When the voltage is applied in between the electrodes the get squeezed and expand in area. These have high coupling efficiency because of low visco elastic loss and electrical leakages. It has specific density energy of 21 times that of single crystal peizo electric and can withstand maximum strains.
Experimental testing method:
Here a medium size water tank is used in which high pressures are generated. Here the maximum pressure can be 159 mpa and has a supply voltage of 2.74 mpa. It has a flexible transparent membrane which can exert pressure on the polymer. The device is placed in a box and is sealed with silicon oil. The box is placed in the tank which generates the deep sea conditions. A camera is placed in the tank to monitor the active region. By increasing the pressure levels upto 100mpa the strain a measured. By using a micro meter capler the conditions of the active region for different supplied voltages are measured. As the pressure does not make the polymer to show any changes then we can use it for sonar transducers.
Download Electro active Polymer “Artificial Muscle” Operable In Ultra High Hydrostatic Pressure Environment.
In today’s world where every equipment requires electricity for its working, and the demand for the electricity is increasing rapidly. The fossil fuels are getting extinct and there is a need for the search of alternative sources to meet the present electricity demands. In this paper we are going to discuss about one of the available conventional method for the generation of electricity. All moving vehicles posses kinetic energy, we will use this kinetic energy for the generation of electricity. The entire model is built under a speed breaker and when passes through the speed breaker it generates electricity. We will call this arrangement as power hump. The power generated is stored in rechargeable device for future use.
The entire model is placed under the dome of the speed breaker. The springs are placed under the dome and to these spring racks are connected. When the vehicle passes through speed breaker it creates a compression and this makes the springs to move the racks. The racks are connected to the gear unit and a shaft is placed to maintain a uniform motion. A dynamo is used to convert the rotational motion to electricity. The generated electricity gets stored in the batteries for further use.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
This type conventional energy models are very helpful for the generation of electricity with low cost. By the use of fossil fuels the environment gets polluted and by using these conventional methods the nature does not get affected. By using this model we need to look into each time in order to check the disturbances. By using these conventional methods we cannot generate the required power. New methods have to be employed to generate higher voltages. Thus we conclude that these conventional methods can be used for generating electricity to meet the present demands.
Download Electricity Generation from Speed Breakers Project Report.
Introduction to speed control technique:
There are several techniques for controlling the speed of DC motor. Some of techniques used are rheostat and chopper control technique which are not that much effective. In this project we are going to employ PWM technique for controlling the speed of DC motor. The AT89C52 microcontroller generates required PWM wave.
A step down transformer is used to obtain the required voltage for the dc motor from the given 230V. A bridge rectifier is used to regulate the voltage generated. Capacitor is used to filter the generated voltage an IC7806 is used to bypass the ripples. The micro controller by using the timer 0 it generates the required PWM waveform. Two switches are connected to interrupt pins of micro controller, when these are pressed it changes the duty cycle of the dc motor. The generated variable pulse is given to drive the circuit which controls the speed of the motor. The PWM pulse is varied in 10 discrete pulses in the software program. The programming is written in c and keil software is used for compilation.
To obtain the required speed of the DC motor , certain tests are performed to check the speed of the motor. First the PWM circuit is tested the waveform is tested for each discrete pulse of the output voltages so that the changes occurred can be rectified. Then the speed of the motor is tested for varying voltages and the varying speed of motor is noted for every rise in voltages. Thus we conclude that the PWM technique is the most efficient for controlling the speed of the DC motor.
Download Micro controller Based Dc Motor Speed Control System Project Report.
Introduction to reactive power:
Reactive power does not contribute anything to energy. Due to reactive power the efficiency of the energy systems decreases. The reactive power is the opposition of the load elements. It is consumed or generated by all the elements present in the system. Reactance which contributes the reactive power can be of resistive or capacitive. The paper mainly aims at making the power factor to unity by using the available techniques. If the power factor is more than unity then more power will be consumed by the elements than the required amount which in turn causes power loss which is to be reduced.
Capacitor compensation implementation:
The capacitor compensation method is the efficient method for reducing the reactive power. To overcome the voltage drops and power losses we will use the series and shunt reactive compensation. In the industries all the load elements are inductive so we use capacitive compensation make the capacitor leading and load lagging. In the circuit the capacitor bank is connected parallel to the load and a pic 16f877 is placed to measure the phase difference of the current and voltage. If the capacitor bank is off then there will be a more phase difference between the voltage and current and when it is on their won’t be phase difference which reduces the reactive power.
Advantages of capacitor compensation:
This is the cheapest method for reducing the reactive power. This is the effective method for keeping no phase difference between the voltage and current. It reduces the power loss in the generation and transmission. By using this we can control the usage of power by the elements which reduce the more power consumption. Thus we can conclude that capacitor compensation method is more advantageous than the synchronous motor method.
Download Reactive Power Static Compensation by Using Condensator Project Report.
This paper elaborates the working of a voltage protection unit for electrical appliances. This circuit provides the power to the appliance from the main power supply. Suppose if any voltage fluctuations occur in the main power supply then the circuit gets automatically switched off, by this the electrical appliance gets protected from voltage fluctuations. The entire circuit works on the signals driven from the op-amps. For obtaining we use relays. Depending upon the voltage fluctuations these relays work. In this project we are going to use an op-amp IC LM324 which serves as a comparator. The IC LM324consists of four operational amplifiers but in this design we will make use of only two op-amps.
Circuit designing and working:
Here the input from the main power supply is given to the regulated power supply. The output of the regulated power supply is fed to the op-amp of IC in which we use only op-amp 1 and op-amp2. The output of this op-amps is given to the transistor circuit. The transistor driver circuit gives the respective pulse to the relay circuit. The electrical appliance is connected to the relay. If the voltage at the inverting terminal is greater then the non inverting terminal then the op-amps makes the relay off. This process occurs vice versa for less voltages.
This type of equipment is very useful for protecting the appliances against short circuit. We may not get a constant voltage from the power supply and this device works efficiently for the control these disturbances.
Download Over Line and Under Line Voltage Protection for Electrical Appliances Project Abstract.