Electronic Stethoscope Project Abstract

Introduction:

The project aims at designing a electronic stethoscope. We will design a circuit which same as a conventional stethoscope. The circuit is designed on a veroboard. The entire circuit runs on a 9V battery source. By using low cost electronic components like resistors, capacitors and opamps the required design is achieved.

Circuit description:

The heart beat sounds are generated will be in low frequency range of 20 t0 30 khz. So it equipment must be designed to detect these low frequency range. The opamp is made to operate low frequency ranges so the gain of the opamp will be in the range of 3.9. The high output impedance of the fet makes the resistor to operate at 12 khz, by which the capacitor allows only low frequency signals. A Butter worth low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 103hz is produced due to gain of the resistors and by making it to pass through capacitors a sharp butterwoth response is produced. By reducing the capacitor gain values the cut off frequency gets increased to 1khz and this frequency range is used for detecting respiratory sounds.

Design:

The entire circuit is placed on a veroboad and the microphone is connected by using a shielded cable. The microphone is connected to the stethoscope by using a isolated rubber sleeve. The stethoscope head can be designed by using thick jar. The microphone must be sealed properly to avoid acoustical noise. To avoid fiction noises the microphone head must be moved while listening heart beats. Thus the stethoscope can be designed by using electronic components.

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Electronic Safety Assistance for Blind Using Micro controller and Dsp Voice Processor

Introduction:

The main objective of this project is to provide safety for blind people from obstacles. This device ensures safety for the blind while walking. The device is to be carried by blind and when the device senses any obstacle it gives the message through voice processor and accordingly he can move. The entire design is built on the concept of embedded system and AT89C52 microcontroller is used which monitors the components.

Circuit design and working:

AT89C52 microcontroller is the heart of the design. The IR waves are transmitted into free space and when these touch the obstacle its gets reflected. The reflected waves are receives by the IR receiver. The demodulator is used to process the signal and it gives the processed signal to the microcontroller. The microcontroller then drives the relay connected to the dsp voice processor by which the blind person can come to know about the obstacle. The microcontroller is provided with an oscillator frequency of 12mhz, and a reset logic signal is fed to the microcontroller so restart when bugs occur. The entire circuit is provide with an rechargeable battery source. The advantage of selecting AT89C52 microcontroller is that it has an 8kb of flash memory. The relay is to drive the dsp voice processor according to the given signal.

Advantages:

The device is very helpful for the blind people to go in a exact path without the help of others. Instead of using IR signals we can also use light signals detecting obstacles. The IR signal response for after the detection of obstacle is delayed by 0.2 seconds which is to be overcome.

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Electronic House Project Abstract

Introduction to electronic house:

The main aim of this project is to save the power in a house hold environment. We will employ certain techniques to reduce the usage of power. In this we are six major equipments which are use monitor all the devices present. By using this model we can have a monitor control over the devices.  All the monitoring equipments are controlled using a remote controller. The six equipments are

Remote operated gate control;

This is used for opening and closing of the gates, it has a sensor placed in front of the gate which gives us the signal on the remote so that we can operate the gate. By using this we can provide safety to the house.

Auto adjustable timer unit:

By using this timer unit we can set the time control for the working of the devices , after the completion of the time the devices gets off. This is used to set time control for devices like water sprinkler in garden, and bed lights etc.

Remote operated appliances:

This is used for controlling the devices like fan, ac, tv ,washing machines etc. All these appliances made on or off by using the remote control.

Touch sensitive burglar alarm for internal security:

This is used for providing internal security to lockers and some cupboards. The sensor placed for these things gives an alarm when touched by a un identity.

Automatic gate light and bell system:

This device is to give  a bell and puts on lights when the person is entering. By this we can the power by reducing the unnecessary use of gate lights. From the automatic bell we can know when any one is coming.

Water level indicator and controller:

By  using this we can know the level of water in the tank and it automatically puts off the pump when the tank gets full. By using these equipments we can save the power.

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Electronic Components Tester Project Report

Introduction:

The main objective of this paper is to design a device which can test the electronic components accurately. In this paper we will discuss the testing of electronic components and how to repair them. A multi meter like device is designed by using a 8051 micro controller. By using this we cannot know the operational parameters of the device but we know only whether the device is working or not.

Micro controller working:

We will select an AT89C52 microcontroller which comes under the family of 8051. It is an low power and high performance 8 bit cmos microcontroller. The special feature of this microcontroller is that it has 8kb of internal flash memory which is not available in most of the microcontrollers. It is a powerful and highly flexible for the design of embedded control applications. It is a 40 pin device in which 32 pins can be used for input and output purpose and it has 256 bytes of ram. It has idle mode which halts the normal execution and allows the interrupt to continue execution.

Testing process:

An IC555 timer is used to generate a pulse which is used for testing the electronic component. The pulse is fed to the input line of the micro controller. A control unit is present in the circuit so as to adjust the pulse frequencies accordingly. At the output line of the micro controller we connect the electronic components to check its working. We can see the output values in the lcd. By using this device we can check the working of transistors and diodes. The present available multi meters have only specific capability of checking only diodes or transistors. We cannot know the operational parameters of the components so cannot know at what point of value the component cannot work in the circuit. Thus we can conclude that this device is high performance capable and low cost when compare to that of available multi meters.

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Electronic Circuit Breaker System

Introduction to circuit breaker:

Circuit breakers act like switches which detects the faults occurred and stops the flow of current by saving the equipment from voltage overflows and short circuits. It can automatically come back to working when the faults are rectified. Generally the faults in the circuits occur due to in continuous flow of current or by improper arrangement of load elements. The circuit breakers can be designed accordingly for lower voltage circuits and higher voltage circuits. An AT89C52 micro controller is used for monitoring the circuit.

Circuit design and Working:

The microcontroller is fed with the rectified voltage coming from the rectifier. All the load elements are connected to a relay switch.  The microcontroller monitors the voltage level required for the load elements, if it detects any change  the voltage levels to voltage fluctuations  then it automatically drives the relays to turn off. The rectifier bypasses the voltage levels and then the microcontroller again makes the relays turn on. These circuit breakers are mainly used as regulators in power circuits and in battery shunt circuits. The advantage of 89C52 is that it has a 8kb of flash  memory which can be reprogrammed any number of times. A step down transformer is used to obtain the required current for the load elements present.

Advantages:

The circuit breakers are very effective in protecting the load elements from voltage over flows an short circuits. It can automatically switch when the faults occur, where as a fuse cannot switchover. It can be used for lower voltage circuits and higher voltage circuits. It is low cost model when compared to other circuit protecting devices. 

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