This Real Time Automatic Irrigation System Project Report is about the Real Time Automatic Irrigation System. The report consists of Introduction, Block Diagram, Interfaces, Soil Moisture Sensor, Solenoid Valve, Relays. The continuous increasing demand of food requires the rapid improvement in food production technology. In a country like India, where the economy is mainly based on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic, still we are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water.
The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes to waste. Agriculture is the oldest occupation in the world. We are unable to make full use of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains and scarcity of land reservoir water. This project helps in time saving and removal of human error in adjusting available soil moisture levels. The goal of this project is to automate the irrigation system with the help of wireless communication. Before having an automatic irrigation system installed, land owners usually are advised to conceptualize and map out a landscape design plan. This map or blueprint will determine the amount of water each lawn section will need.
The report explained the Real Time Automatic Irrigation System through block diagram. Under interface the sensor, relay and Zigbee interface is defied very clearly and pictorial way. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. In crop production it is mainly used in dry areas and in periods of rainfall shortfalls, but also to protect plants against frost.
TYPES OF IRRIGATION
1. Surface irrigation
2. Localized irrigation
3. Drip Irrigation
4. Sprinkler irrigation
The Microcontroller based irrigation system proves to be a real time feedback control system which monitors and controls all the activities of drip irrigation system efficiently. The present proposal is a model to modernize the agriculture industries on a small scale with optimum expenditure. Using this system, one can save manpower, water to improve production and ultimately profit.
Download Real Time Automatic Irrigation System Final Semester Civil Engineering Project Report.
This Protection Repair And Maintenance Of Rcc Structures Btech Civil Project report is about Protection repair and maintenance of rcc structures. RCC stands for Reinforced Cement Concrete. The report emphasize on Protection repair and maintenance of R.C.C. structures. The purpose of the report is to highlight the methods of repair and maintenance to be undertaken for structures with defects and deficiencies that necessitate rehabilitation.
Repair and maintenance methods currently used are reviewed on the basis of present knowledge and the merit of a holistic system approach. This report focuses on visible symptoms of the problem rather than on visible and invisible problems as well as the possible causes behind them. This report focuses about the repair materials and the techniques used since the use of appropriate repair materials and techniques is essential for the satisfactory performance of the repaired structure. This report presents an analysis of concrete illnesses, curing treatments, and problems leading to unsatisfactory performance of repaired concrete structures.
Provides prescriptive advice for engineers on the repair and maintenance of reinforced concrete structures damaged by reinforcement corrosion. It covers:
i. The mechanisms of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete,
ii. The diagnosis of deterioration in concrete structures, including the planning and interpretation of defect investigations,
iii. Some of the options for repair, each with its prognosis for future service life and maintenance requirements,
iv. The types of materials used to repair the damage and protect against future deterioration, and
v. Preventive maintenance.
The deterioration mechanisms described and most available repair options apply, in principle, to all forms of concrete with embedded steel reinforcement. This report is primarily aimed at non-pressurised reinforced concrete.
Repair and prepared corrected area should be carried out systematically. Applications of protective coatings are required to be properly supervised and carried out. Surface defects like bugs holes and honey comb require immediate repairs.
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This Primary Treatment Of Waste Water Fundamental Of Environmental Engineering project report is about the Treatment of Waste water Fundamental. The process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff and domestic is called Wastewater treatment. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its target is to develop an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream and a solid waste, suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer).
Under Preliminary “Treatment” define about Equalization to Smooth out fluctuations in flow rate. The Flow Measurement contains efficient operation, chemical addition, etc. After pumping, the plant is designed to operate under gravity flow to the point of discharge at the receiving stream. The Primary treatment includes Bar screen, Comminatory, Grit chamber, Primary clarifier. The report defines the details of each Primary treatment separately.
The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of waste water is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment for the later use of drinking, bathing, irrigation, etc. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the quality of the water being treated for example cloudiness, pH, etc. Types of disinfection being used, the disinfectant dosage, and other environmental variables. Cloudy water will be treated less successfully, since solid matter can shield organisms, especially from ultraviolet light or if contact times are low. Generally, short contact times, low doses and high flows all militate against effective disinfection.
As per the common methods of disinfection include ozone, chlorine, ultraviolet light, or sodium hypochlorite. After multiple steps of disinfection, the treated water is ready to be released back into the water cycle by means of the nearest body of water or agriculture. Afterwords, the water can be transferred to reserves for everyday human uses. The pictorial presentation of Primary treatment is helps to understand the concept of the Treatment of Waste water.
This Project Report On Polymer Fibre Reinforced Concrete Pavements is about the POLYMER FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS. In a developing country such as India, road networks form the arteries of the nation. A pavement is the layered structure on which vehicles travel. It serves two purposes, namely, to provide a comfortable and durable surface for vehicles, and to reduce stresses on underlying soils. In India, the traditional system of bituminous pavements is widely used.
Road transportation is undoubtedly the lifeline of the nation and its development is a crucial concern. The traditional bituminous pavements and their needs for continuous maintenance and rehabilitation operations points towards the scope for cement concrete pavements. There are several advantages of cement concrete pavements over bituminous pavements. This paper explains on POLYMER FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS, which is a recent advancement in the field of reinforced concrete pavement design. PFRC pavements prove to be more efficient than conventional RC pavements, in several aspects, which are explained in this paper.
Polymeric fibres are being used now because of their no risk of corrosion and also being cost effective. Polymeric fibres normally used are either of polyester or polypropylene. Polymer fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) was used on two sites with ready mix concrete and Vacuum dewatering process.
PFRC can be used advantageously over normal concrete pavement. Polymeric fibres such as polyester or polypropylene are being used due to their cost effective as well as corrosion resistance. PFRC requires specific design considerations and construction procedures to obtain optimum performance. The higher initial cost by 15-20% is counterbalanced by the reduction in maintenance and rehabilitation operations, making PFRC cheaper than flexible pavement by 30-35%. In a fast developing and vast country like India, road networks ensure mobility of resources, communication and in turn contribute to growth and development.
Download Final Year Civil Engineering Project Report On Polymer Fibre Reinforced Concrete Pavements.
B.tech final year students who are interested in developing auction related web based application then Net Auction a web based java project will be a best choice. The main idea for developing this project is to provide an option for public for selling and buying products through auction from all over the world using a well designed web application.
Online Net Auction a web based java application will allow users to log in to the site and specify details about auction. Through this application seller will publish his tender details to public by providing minimum biding price for the product? Then buyers from all over the world who are interested in the product will bid for the product which will start from the minimum rate provided by seller. Auction will be closed based on the buyers best bid provided in auction. This project includes new option like automatic bidding where buyer can set min and maximum bidding amount after the maximum biding is reached user will be informed through sms. This application has sms feature where messages will be sent to seller and buyer about the status of product.
Buyer Module: In this module bidder should log in to his account and select products he want to bid for, using two features normal bidding or automatic bidding.
Seller Module: This module is for user who wants to sell his product. In this module seller should upload information of the product he want to sell with details about the product and minimum bidding cost.
Admin Module: In this module admin will coordinate with seller and buyer on the auction and maintain reports.
Reports Module: This module will provide information to seller and buyer about the products transaction, Auction expiry information and buyer and seller information.
Software and hardware requirements for developing bidding software project.
Web Server : Apache Tomcat 5.5
Backend : Oracle
Technology : JAVA/J2EE
Server Side Scripting : JSP
Client Side Scripting : Java Script
Java Version : JDK1.5
Web Designing : HTML, DHTML, CSS
Editor : Edit plus
Pentium IV processor architecture
512 MB RAM.
40 GB Hard Disk Space
For more information on this net auction cse projectyou can download project report from this site.