Wireless Sensor Networks: In today’s environment the evolving of technology leads to the growth of different kind of low cost sense technologies that are utilized in various sectors. The technology that supports is wireless sensing technology it is done with the help of wireless sensor networks. These networks are combined of typical nodes which has the capacity to determine both the physical and ecological features.

These sensors distribute the particular data sustaining both physical as well as ecological environments and transfer the information regardless of wires. The main feature of wireless it is very skillful in mechanisms like data transmitting and data forwarding. These sensors independent in nature and they tune to the variables such as vibration, velocity, sound, motion etc. These networks can sense them and as well and also detect them easily.These sensors is composed of four main devices sensor, unit, energy source, transceiver it also consists of other add-on’s like energy producer, position changer, localization unit etc. These wireless nodes resemble the shape of coins since these are smaller in size this can be minimized with the technology of “micro-electro-mechanical systems”.

More nodes to be place as the distance is limited to 30 meters because of low energy levels and low band width therefore the nodes requirement is high. So that data transformation is high and constant. Hence the four components should be used accurately and their supporting team also.Due to this the processing capability is very less since the node is aligned by less bandwidth and less energy transformation. The wireless sensor network varies in a very high degree as the operating system functions are contains millions of code lines unlike wirelesses networks as it can handle limited code lines WSN can handle to only few thousand lines of codes. Here we are mentioning various types of operating systems TINY OS, MANTIS,SOS, NANO-RK,CONTIKI,BTNUT etc. each one is utilized for different purpose regarding to particular field depending upon the commercial needs.

It can track all the possibilities irrespective of physical conditions existing in that area. so it is confirmed that wireless sensor networks are very accurate in nature.The wide range of usage is extended to different fields such as health application, army applications, ecological applications moreover commercial applications for examples the homes which is helpful for smart automation and in multi stored buildings for which environment issues does not raise ultimately warns if there is any problem occurs vehicles can be easily  viewed and proper administration can be processed by innovative control management such as in museums ,railway stations .

In army they  can view the forces ,bunkers, border tacking can also be done  the equipment here used is ammunition. Beneath this they can track the battle fields and also can fix the target and explodes are targeted based on this even in desserts as well as waters it can be tracked through heli copters ,choppers .it can identifies the enemy attacks also    these attacks may include both chemical as well as biological attacks  the war damage is also tracked. In the environmental department it is used to view the land conditions for agriculture purpose and to access the pollution levels and to anticipate which crops are better for the growth type of field, its habitations it also served for commercial purpose like fire alarming and in anticipating the natural calamities like   floods and earthquakes coming to the health region its purposes are drug management and administration and it is also helpful in checking the physical and mental health also.

The routing protocols play vital role in sensor applications it is selected by the application type we use it supports wireless sensor networks. The routing protocol designs causes some internal problems due to this they face same struggles .while implementing the struggles should be carefully read and should be known so that we can take necessary steps the factors which rely when we develop the routing protocols are reporting data methods connectivity, scalability and the important point to remember is deployment of nodes the tolerance level to be maintained and media of transmission.

Sensor nodes can be predictable as small size computers, extremely fundamental in terms of their interfaces and their components. They usually consist of a processor with confined computational power and limited memory, sensors or a communication device and a power source usually in the form of a battery. Other possible inclusions are energy, harvesting modules, secondary ASICs, and possibly secondary communication devicesThe resources are very high with one of the base stations are eminent devices of the WSN which has high energy sources with full of calculated power and limited memory. They act as a gateway between sensor nodes and the end user as they typically forward data from the WSN on to a server. Other special components in routing based networks are routers, designed to compute, calculate and distribute the routing tables. Many techniques are used to connect to the outside world including mobile phone networks, satellite phones, radio modems, high power Wi-Fi links etc.