Various Types of Biometrics

Biometrics is of different types and they are as follows:

  • Fingerprints: Generally the fingerprints of a person will never match with the fingerprints of any other person and this is due to the friction valleys and ridges that exist on the fingers. This indicates that the ridges and valleys on the fingers of a person will not match with any other person. Even in case of twins also the fingerprints will be different for each other and this is because of their uniqueness. There are some devices for recognizing the fingerprints and those devices are mostly available for the laptops and desktops and these devices are considered as the best commercial biometric tools. This fingerprint authentication process is ensured by many countries, the people of many countries are ordered to enrol their fingerprints in to the systems for making secured social activities. This approach of biometrics based fingerprint authentication is mainly used for providing security for the users from fake applicants. 
  • Face Recognition: Face recognition is one of the biometric applicationsand this is mostly used approach now-a-days. The face features of a person are used for identifying that particular person in the process of authentication. There are some special and advanced techniques and technologies are used to capture some of the unique facial features of a human being. The required facial features and the infrared patterns that are capture by using a combination of less cost camera and spectrum that is visible (Lynch, 2009). The usage of cameras in a wide range can capture the visible area of the face and these areas are not disturbed by the variations in time and even some of the unconditional and typical features such as expressions and hair are also avoided. The facial images are modelled in the spectrum that is visible by using many approaches and they are Local Feature Analysis, elastic graph theory, Principal Component Analysis, multi-resolution analysis and neural networks. Working with the facial recognition also includes some challenges and they are detecting a mask, lessening the influence of variable lightening and detecting a photograph. 
  • Speaker Recognition:The speech of the individuals can also make many differences and so this is considered as the traditional application of biometrics. Each and every individual has their own style of speaking and voice cultures and these features will be unique for the individuals. Both the behavioural and anatomy patterns are reflected by these acoustic features. This approach comes under the behavioural biometrics category because the voice templates are incorporated by the known patterns. In speaker recognition there are three types of spoken inputs and they are “text-dependent, text-independent and text-prompted. The text- dependent input is used in most of the speaker recognition applications, where one or more voice passwords are enrolled in the database is involved. 
  • Iris Recognition:In Iris recognition the coloured environment that is surrounded by the people’s eye is taken as the input. These patterns are very difficult and tough similar. These Iris patterns are captured by using the acquisition systems that are based on videos. Both the identification and verification modes are done good using the technologies of the Iris recognition systems. Particularly in this case the requirement of a physical coordination with required biometric systems which are used is not a mandatory condition. In most of the cases this type of recognition systems are used and demonstrated and the results obtained by using these systems will also show variations in different groups throughout the world. 
  • Hand and Finger Geometry: “Hand and Finger Geometry” is one of the personal identification techniques that are established well and these hand recognition systems are considered as the best biometric applications since past twenty years. In this authentication process the physical features of the hand finger of a human being are needed. These physical features may be height, width, surface area of hand, length of the fingerand these are observed for perfect study of the traditional biometric approaches. 
  • Signature Verification:Signature verification is one of the biometric approaches used in many cases. In this technique the signature verification technology uses the speed of signing that a person follows the angle of the sign and the pressure applied by an individual for signing. Generally in the areas of e-commerce and e-business applications there is a lot of requirement of high level security because the financial and economical transactions are done online and so this particular signature verification is used in this case. The signature verification system is also used in case of online shopping and also in case of acceptance systems of credit cards.

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