2.1 Chapter introduction
This chapter introduces diverse research methods that are used in the research process in order to gather the essential research information. The secondary data collection method is used in the research process for finding the appropriate information on effects of terminal cancer among children. The reliability and validity of the research data explains the trustworthiness of the research study.
2.2 Overview of Methodology
In views of Holloway & Wheeler (2002) methodology can be considered as the significant aspect that contains wide range of methods and approaches which can be used to solve various problems in the research process. Research methods are categorized into two different types such as quantitative research method as well as qualitative research method. Within the existing research methods, specific type of research method will be considered based on research requirements.
2.3 Research Method selected
The proposed study is a literature based study that and within this research process the primary data sources like peer reviewed articles, journals and web documents proposed by earlier scholars on terminal cancer and terminal illness are taken into consideration.
In this research process the quantitative research method and its data sources are used in order to gather the fundamental information on the terminal cancer and terminal illness. According to views of Polit & Beck (2008), quantitative research method includes earlier experiences of scholars and authors on specific topics. Quantitative research method is widely used for literature based research studies because literature studies include discussions, conclusions, justifications and critics on different topics proposed by various scholars. Whereas, quantitative research method includes the earlier experiences of scholars and authors on different topics and for this particular reason quantitative research method is used in this research process. By using different data sources of quantitative research method, researcher gathered important information on terminal cancer and terminal illness from published scholarly articles, journals, book reviews and web documents from internet sources. The information gathered from these sources is analyzed critically in order to get final expected result.
According to Macnee & McCabe (2008), quantitative research method can be used to answer different types of research questions like where, why and what. By using this researcher method, researcher can answer different questions on where the terminal cancer disease levels are high, why terminal cancer is not been cured and what are the actual preventive measures that can be followed to reduce disease effects of terminal cancer. In order to answer these questions, researcher used different quantitative data sources.
2.4 Research Design
Mason (2002) stated that research design process is used to convert the research questions into the testing process in order to get the expected results and outcomes. Usually, two different research designs exist in the research process such as experimental research design and non-experimental research design which are been taken into consideration depending on the research requirements.
According to Mason (2002), for quantitative based research studies non-experimental research design is used through which researcher designed different research questions on terminal cancer and terminal illness. By using non-experimental research design process, researcher prepared some research questions that why terminal cancer is not getting cured permanently, why palliative care process is not successful in treating children with terminal cancer, why terminally ill children suffering with cancer are ending their lives etc. By using this non- experimental research design approach which is associated with quantitative research method, researcher gathered opinions of different scholars on terminal cancer and terminal illness. After reviewing and analyzing their approaches, researcher identified that there is an increased incidence of children suffering from terminal cancer in the United Kingdom. This is making them to lose their interest towards their lives. As this terminal illness is not having permanent cure and treatment options, terminal cancer deaths are increasing in UK. Even though there are many health institutions and hospitals to treat the terminal cancer children, yet they are not successful in eliminating the incidence levels in UK children. Researcher states that still there is a requirement of huge support and motivation from local government to the hospitals and healthcare institutions in order to support the terminal cancer children by offering more palliative care facilities.
2.5 Data collection method
In views of Burns & Grove (2009) data collection process is playing vital role in entire research process through which the essential research information on terminal cancer and terminal illness can be gathered and analyzed. Data collection process is playing key role in the research process because the actual research data which is required to fulfil the research requirements can be gathered only by using specific type of data collection sources.
Usually, two different types of data collection methods exist in the research process such as primary data collection method and secondary data collection method. By using secondary data collection sources, researcher gathered information on terminal cancer and terminal illness and their needs and palliative care measures for treating cancer children from literature based scholarly articles, nursing journals and web documents and finally analyzed them critically to get the actual justification on terminal cancer effects (Cresswell,2007).
Secondary data collection method is used within this research process because this is a literature based study that includes different discussions and justifications of scholars and authors on specific topics. Secondary data collection method involves data collection sources like scholarly and peer reviewed articles and journals that are specified by scholars and authors. For this particular reason, secondary data collection method is widely used in this research process (Sasha Hurrell, 2004).
However the researcher’s knowledge plays a key role in completing the research process successfully because in order to gather the information from any data collection source the researcher should initially know how to collect the information and how to analyze it according to the research requirements.
2.6 Rationale of Literature Review
Bowling, A & Ebrahim, S. (2005) stated that different radical changes have taken place within the science and technology background resulting in demand of huge data collection. In order to overcome different challenges related to health studies several number of research works are been carried out by scholars and authors in order to give clear justification on science based aspects. At this particular situation, literature reviews are playing key role in finding appropriate scholarly reviews of experienced scholars and authors on different aspects which allow the researcher to find significant information on the selected research topic. Different types of discussions on literature based studies will be taken into consideration in order to fulfil the actual research discussions of the research topic. In general, different types of literature searches are available through which researcher can easily obtain significant information on the selected topic. This research study is based on literature searchers of terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care. By using earlier experiences, discussions and views of different scholars on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care, researcher selected some important discussions and analyzed them critically within the literature review chapter. In order to complete the research process successfully, the important and foremost step is to find the appropriate articles and journals that suits best for the literature discussions which clearly justifies the actual results required.
In the literature based studies, the basic key words play vital role in identifying the appropriate searches related to the research process. By making use of specific key words, the essential information can be found and gathered easily. The main key words of this literature based research study are “Terminal Cancer”, “Terminal Illness”, “Palliative Care”, “Chemotherapy”, “Radiotherapy”, “Physical needs, Social needs, Spiritual needs, Psychological needs of terminally ill children”, “ Parents”, “Caregivers” and Hospitals etc. By making use of these key words, researcher searched the important information required for the research process and analyzed them critically in order to get the final expected output.
2.7 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
2.7.1 Inclusion criteria
The inclusion criteria of this research study are the published and scholarly articles, peer- reviewed journals, book reviews and web documents. The recent literature searches from the year 2000-2012 are taken into consideration and are reviewed and analyzed critically. Different types of scholarly articles and peer reviewed journals on terminal cancer, terminal illness, terminal cancer and palliative care are taken into consideration and are analyzed and evaluate critically. The literature search of this research study includes discussions and critics on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care and for this particular reason only peer reviewed articles and journals are used in the research process.
2.7.2 Exclusion criteria
The exclusion criteria of this research study are the editorials, participant opinions survey results are excluded from this research as they vague in credibility. This is a literature based study related to quantitative research study in which the qualitative data sources like surveys, focus groups, semi structured interviews, group discussions and questionnaires are excluded. As discussed earlier, this is a literature based studies in which the discussions and justifications of scholars should be included rather than the statistical and survey results.
2.8 Databases Used
The different types of data bases are used and accessed within this research process such as WHO, NHS, DHS and Cancer institute. Especially, the website of Liverpool John Moores University website and Library resources are used in order to gather the essential research information. Some of the other important databases like CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Ezine articles as well as PsycArticles are used.
By using the above mentioned databases, different types of articles, journals, case studies and web documents on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care are taken into consideration. All the above mentioned databases includes different articles and journals related to science based topics in which any researcher can easily gather the opinions of scholars and authors on specific topic.
2.9 Data analysis process
According to LoBiondo-Wood & Haber (2010), data analysis is the process which is widely used for analyzing and evaluating the research data and information in order to obtain final outputs. The required research data on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care is gathered from different data secondary data collection sources and analyzed it according to the research requirements. Depending on the type of research method used in the data collection process, different types of research techniques are used to analyze the research data. Within this research process quantitative research method is used and for this particular reason the research techniques of quantitative research method are utilized for analyzing the data. By making use of data analysis process the significant research data can be investigated and analyzed. The data analysis of this research process is used to analyze the information on terminal illness, terminal cancer and palliative care. The researcher gathered and analyzed the existing data on terminal cancer and terminal illness and finally identified the actual measures to be taken for treating cancer children. In order to fulfill the research gaps research made some peer justifications on literature findings of terminal cancer and terminal illness. Within the data analysis process, researcher nearly reviewed around 15 peer articles and journals and nearly around 80-100 scholars discussions on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care and its sources are already mentioned in the reference list of bibliography.
2.10 Reliability of the data
Reliability is the process that can be used to identify the quality and standard of the data used in the research process. The data sources of quantitative research method like articles and peer journals are used in this study that includes the earlier opinions and views of scholars on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care process. Researcher gathered the required information from these sources and analyzed them in a reliable manner without violating the scholar’s information. The data analysis process is carried out according to researcher knowledge and interest. Researcher just gathered the opinions and views of the authors but their information was not copied. The research reliability can be identified by the justifications given by the researcher on literature searches of terminal cancer and terminal illness (Saunders et.al, 2006).
Validation is the process that can be used to identify the rational and justification of the research data. The data used in the research process can be validated by using internal and external validations through which the final justifications and outputs of the research study can be identified. The final justification of this research study is that terminal cancer and terminal illness are not having any treatment options which directly lead to child deaths. At this particular situation, palliative care can be offered to terminally ill children suffering with terminal cancer in order to give temporary relief to the children.
The justifications made by the researcher about terminal cancer can be used to identify the actual validity of the research data used. By using the data analysis process, each and every article and journal considered in the research process is analyzed critically and are reviewed in a reliable manner in order to give a final conclusion on this research study. Especially, internet and library books are used to gather the articles and journals on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care process. Finally after reviewing peer articles and journals research justifies that terminal cancer treatment options should be increased in order to save the lives of children who are suffering from terminal cancer disease.
2.12 Ethical considerations
An ethical consideration is the significant process that can be used to identify the research skills of the researcher. Researcher used different data sources of quantitative research method in order to gather appropriate information on terminal cancer, terminal illness and palliative care process. While gathering the information from these sources, researcher followed all ethics and principles by following the authentication methods required to gather the data from these sources. The data reliability and validation processes can be used to identify the research skills and knowledge of the researcher. In the entire data collection process, researcher have not violated or copied any scholars or authors information through which the actual interest of the researcher towards the research study can be identified. The ethics are always important for literature based studies because literature review aspect includes different opinions and discussions of authors and scholars on specific topics. The researcher who is using the literature sources should always follow the research ethics in order to accept the author’s confidentiality towards their proposed literature studies.
2.13 Summary of the chapter
The detailed information on the quantitative research method and its data sources used to gather the information on terminal cancer and terminal illness is explained within this chapter. In this chapter the researcher used literature based study in which quantitative research method and secondary data collection sources are used. By using all these data sources like published articles and journals, researcher successfully gathered the fundamental research information required to the research process. Finally this chapter summarizes that literature based research is considered as the best research method for this study.