Introduction to Seminar Topics on Integrated Circuits:

Integrated circuits are made of semiconductors; they are crystal chips that contain both active and passive components. They are fabricated in two ways either monolithic way or hybrid way. They work linear or digital or interfaced. There are developed according to the requirement like Small scale integration, medium scale integration, large scale integration and very large scale integration.

There are very small in size and have high reliability. They consume very less power and work very fast. Then is also they are very cheap in cost. But they have few disadvantages like they have poor frequency performance. Power dissipation is low; it is very difficult to achieve the high voltage.

In today technology 3-D VLSI circuits are used, it includes the feature of SoC (System on Chip) which does not work in 2-d circuits. The interconnection delays are increased, and the entire chip is divided in to the number of blocks. 3-d circuits have systems on the chips that reduce the number of I/O pins and increase the power efficiency.

In 3-d chips, entire 2-d chips are divided into the number of blocks and they are stacked on each other with separate layer Si, and all the layer are interconnected with each other.

Advantages: they reduce the circuitry wiring and also the area of the circuit, which in result decrease the capacitance of the circuit. Analog and digital components are mixed and then they are placed together, so that they can achieve better noise performance and can lower the electromagnetic interference as much as possible.

Applications; they are used in mobiles, cameras, mp3 players etc. they are used in the almost every electronic devices. They are also used in the ROM and NAND flash technology.

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