Introduction to Computer System Seminar Topic:

A computer system is a general purpose device programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations, and can solve more than one kind of problem. A computer system consists of at least one processing element and some form of memory. The arithmetic and logical operations are carried out by processing element, and sequencing and control unit that change order of operations is based on stored information. Computer system consists of peripheral devices, which allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and results are saved and retrieved. Keyboard, printer, scanner, monitor, joystick and routers are an example of peripheral devices.

A computer system is a complete, working system. Computer functions with the help of software and peripheral devices that are connected. Operating system is a must for computers to function. A computer system is an interconnected system of computers that share a central storage system and peripheral devices. Modern computer systems are based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than early computer systems, and they occupy very small space. 

Modern computer systems begin with two different technologies, programming and automatic calculation.

A core of computer system is the system unit, it consists of many electronic components that process the information, and important components of system unit is Central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor. CPU is the brain of the computer system. Random access memory (RAM) is another component of system unit, which stores temporary information that CPU uses while booting. RAM entries are erased when system is switched off. 

A general purpose computer system’s components are interconnected by busses, which are made of wires, they are:

Arithmetic logic unit (ALU):

Performs two classes of operations: Arithmetic operation, logical operation. Basic arithmetic operations supported are: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Advanced arithmetic operations include: trigonometric functions such as sine, cosine.., and square root functions. All these operations can be performed on whole numbers, floating point numbers, and real numbers.

Logic operations include Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR and NOT.

Control Unit:

Manages the various components of computer system; control unit will first read the program instructions and then it will decode them, and it transforms into a series of control signals which will later activate other parts of system. A special memory register or program counter keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from.


A computer memory consists of cells. Each cell has numbered address which can store a single number. Computer has two varieties of memory: RAM and read only memory (ROM). RAM is temporary memory, but ROM is permanent, it is reloaded with data and software that never changes.

Input and Output devices (I/O):

In order to exchange information with outside world, I/O is needed. They are called peripherals. They include: keyboard, joystick, mouse, monitor, printer, scanner and router.

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