Introduction to Brain Controlled Interface Seminar Topic:
Brain controlled interface or Brain computer interface (BCI) is even called as mind-machine interface (MMI). Between brain and an external device, a direct way for communication is provided. Brain controlled interface assist in augmenting, repairing human cognitive or sensory motor functions. Biggest challenge facing BCI is the basic mechanics of the interface. A device known as electroencephalograph (EEG) is attached to scalp, it consists of a set of electrodes. These electrodes read brain signals. Electrodes measure minute differences in the voltage between neurons. The signal is then amplified, filtered and interpreted by a computer program.
A computer which gets sensory input from a video camera converts a signal into a necessary voltage level in order to invoke neurons. Then signals are transferred to an electrode which is properly implanted in brain area. If everything seems to work correctly, then neurons are fired and a visual image corresponding to what the camera sees is received at the subject.
BCI is a communication and control channel which depends on brain’s normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles.
BCI helps in developing applications that can be controlled by thoughts. Some of the applications includes: ability to control a video game by thought, and just thinking in your mind to change the channel without using remote control. Most difficult task is interpreting brain signals for movement in someone who can’t physically move their own arm.
Even though BCI is an advanced one, it has several drawbacks and they don’t work perfectly. Reasons for this are:
- Brain is incredibly complex- all thoughts or actions are a result of simple electric signals in the brain. There are several billions of neurons in human brain, each neuron constantly sends and receives signals through complex web of connections.
- The electric signals generated in brain are weak and prone to interference. When human blinks his eyelids, stronger electrical signals are produced with a tiny voltage potential, so EEGs are employed in order to measure them.
BCI technology is valuable for those who suffer from severe neuro muscular disabilities. BCI’s have input, output and translation algorithms that convert former to latter. BCI operation entirely depends on the interaction of two adaptive controllers, the user brain which produces input and system which translates that activity into output.
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