Introduction to Security Risks and Solutions – ADHOC Routing Protocols :
This paper discussed about the security issues in ad-hoc routing protocols and how the process of routing takes place in ad-hoc networks. Because of the ad-hoc nature of MANETs, proper routing is very important in order to protect against attacks. There is a need to focus on available security solutions to prevent security risks in ad-hoc networks.
Attacks using impersonation are called spoofing, which hides the real IP address or MAC address and user another one. Falsifying route error messages, route cache poisoning, routing table overflow attack, reply attack and black hole are few of the popular attacks which uses fabrication. Attacks using fabrication are very difficult to detect. There is a need to find a routing protocol which forms routes free from any malicious nodes. A good routing protocol should detect the malicious nodes and need to change the routes accordingly. Route cache poisoning is a passive attack that can occur in DSR. Mainly ad-hoc networks are divided into open, managed-open and managed-hostile environmental categories.
The techniques which helps to enhance the ad-hoc routing protocols are security-Aware ad-hoc routing, secure routing protocol and selfish node. Selfish node is a concept used in open environment ad-hoc networks to avoid maliciously behaving nodes. The monitor, reputation system, path manager and trust manager are the four components which are used to keep network throughput at a maximum. For managed-open environments, secure communications are provided by ARAN protocol. ARAN, Authenticated Routing for Ad-hoc Networks protocol has authentication and transmission phases.
In order to make ad-hoc routing more secure, different solutions are available for different environments. The security level of ad-hoc routing protocols always depends on situation, context and infrastructure availability. Every security problem in ad-hoc networks has solutions but every solution has its own drawbacks. The choice of selecting solutions to security problems in ad-hoc networks based on the impact of those security aspects.
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