Introduction to Computers:

We are currently staying in an era of information which depends on the Digital information. This digital information is electronic information, which is product of the computer processing. Now days each work is depended on the retrieving information, applying it, managing it and transferring it to the followers. Computer is capable of processing and keeps information in its memory. 

There are four major operations required in the computer system.

  1. INPUT
  2. PROCESSING
  3. STORAGE
  4. OUTPUT

1. INPUT: The personal computers are micro-computers. The microcomputer receives input data through keyboard, mouse etc. These input devices are known as Peripheral devices. 

2. PROCESSING: Processing is the process of changing the input data to output data. The Central processing unit or CPU does this process. 

3. STORAGE: The information is stored in the RAM or Random access memory present in the motherboard inside of cabinet or CPU. RAM is not a permanent memory which means the information stored is deleted when the computer is turned off. Thus the information in RAM is unstable and not permanent that cannot be retrieved. The motherboard consists of RAM, electronic circuits and CPU. On the other hand ROM or Read only memory in the hard disk memorize the information stored and permanent in terms of information storage. The information can be stored even after the computer is turned off and retrieve after starting the computer. 

4. OUTPUT: Output is the product of computer processed input data. It can be displayed on the computer monitor, listen through speakers, printed by printers and so on. The output devices are called Hardware of the computer system and also known as Peripheral devices. 

A BASIC COMPUTER SYSTEM 

The computer system comprises of peripheral devices like monitor, keyboard, printer, speaker, scanner and other hardware’s. The Central processing unit or CPU is commonly referred as the Computer because of its computing ability. Though the peripherals plays a important role for input data and output data with out which the CPU is useless. 

Apart from the hardware, computer is relied on the software program without which it can be even get started. Even for typing the input data from the keyboard is been processed by “word processing program”.  The software program is available at office stationery or computer stores. Sometimes the word processing program is installed while buying a computer. Rather than buying a computer from large electronics stores it is better to buy it from small chain store in a town where you can get it in less price, so prefer first smaller chain store in a town. 

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT OR SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 

The computer processor in personal computer is designed based on Chip architecture which is minutely schematic wired present internally of CPU.

The PC chip and MAC chip are different in architectures and dissimilar processing units. The software is different for both Mac software is used in Macintosh and PC software for Microsoft or Personal computers. Both software cannot be runner at the same time, although both can be installed in single computer but in different disks or storage memory. Almost all computers during purchasing is installed with Window operating system. The operating system Linux also support and run in Windows PC’s. 

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 

The hardware of a computer system is tangible devices and the software is intangible or programs or digital instructions that run the computer. Software is generated by a programmer by coding a text. The interpreter or compiler then converts the text code into a machine code to make it understand by CPU. After creating a program it has to be tested and debugged for any kind of errors to remove and bundled into executable files. These executable files finally known as Software which can be bought from store or already installed in your computer.

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