DATABASE:  Database is a “collection of interrelated data”.

Ex: Sales D.B contains Sales data for ex: consumer’s products etc. 

  DATABASE TYPES:

1. OLTP: It is simply called Database

2. OLAP: Data warehousing. 

D.B:

-“Organizations Creates Database is to keep details about day to day transactions”.

-The Basic Operators Performed on Database are

  •                        INSERT
  •                        UPDATE
  •                        DELETE
  •                        SELECT

DBMS : {Database Management System}

System: software (or) set of tools.

It is a software to manage Database.

  • DBMS is an interface between user & Database.
  • DBMS is also called as “Database Server”.
  • Database is introduced in 1970’s.
  • FMS introduced in 1960
  • HDBMS and NDBMS introduced in 1970
  • RDBMS introduced in 1980
  • ORDBMS and OODBMS introduced in 1990 

Files & FMS:

File Management System:

  • Data  stored in files & data managed by using FMS (or) FPS (File processing System)
  • Examples of FMS is COBOL Language. 

FMS

  • More Redundancy (Duplication of data)
  • More Inconsistency
  • Less security
  • Lightly Development
  • It doesn’t support DATA INTEGRITY RULES

DBMS

Less Redundancy  (Because Of DBMS Follows the Normalization)

  • Less inconsistency 
  • More security
  • Rapid Development Fast {Some tools Have DBMS i: e. RAD tools rapid Application development}
  • DBMS supports “DATA INTEGRITY” Rules
  1.  Primary key
  2. Foreign key
  3. Unique Key, etc

DBMS TYPES:

Outdated DBMS Types are

  • HDBMS
  • NDBMS

Presently used DBMS Types are

  • RDBMS      
  • ORDBMS
  • OODBMS

These are all based  on “DATA MODEL”

DATA MODEL:

  1. Model means representation of data.
  2. Data representation can be
  • Hierarchical Data model
  • N/W Data model
  • Relational Data model                                   

HDBMS:

  • In HDBMS DATA Represented in the form of inverted tree.

HDBMS

Example: IMS [Integrated mgmt System] introduced by IBM.

Disadvantages:

  • This supports only one to many relationships.
  • It doesn’t’ support many to many relationships.
  • Data retrieval is slow.

NDBMS:

  • It supports all types of relationships.
  • In NDBMS data represented in the form of “Nodes”

NDBMS

  • Ex. Of  NDBMS is IDMS [integrated database mgmt system]
  • IDMS introduced by IBM

Disadvantages:

  • Complexity relationship.
  • Data retrieval is slow.

RDBMS:

  • This model is introduced by “E.F.CODD”
  • He designs some rules are called “CODD Rules”
  • 12 Rules are designed.
  • A dbms which data file all CODD rules is perfect ”RDBMS”.

Rule (i): Information Rule:

  • Data must be organized in 2d tables.

    Table:      Collection of named columns & unnamed rows.

   Ex:           Empid              Ename        Salary

                        1                          A               500

                         2                         B                600                        

  • Vertical Columns are also called Fields (or) attributes.
  • Horizontal rows are also called records (or) tuples.
  • Intersection of row & column must be atomic [single].
  • Records are uniquely identified by “primary key”.
  • Tables are related using “foreign key”.

Examples of RDBMS:

  •    SQL SERVER
  •    ORACLE
  •    DB2
  •    MYSQL
  •    SYBASE
  •    INGRES
  •    INFORMIX
  •    TERADATA.

The first RDBMS is called “system R”. It is introduced by IBM.

ORDBMS:

  • Which stands for obj. relational DBMS?
  • ORDBMS= rdbms + OOPS
  • It is not a new system; it is an extension of RDBMS.
  • User defined Types [UDT] is introduced by ORDBMS.                                   

Address    {

                  House No                                   

                   Street                                

                   City

                   State

                    }

  • Examples of ORDBMS are SQL SERVER, ORACLE.

OODBMS:

  • It is extremely based on “oops”.
  • Here data is represented in the form of “classes &Objects”