In order to connect two completely different networks, or two WANs, or two LANs, or a LAN with a WAN, a router is required. It can be simply defined as a device that communicates between the above mentioned entities. What a router is programmed to do is sort and distributes the various packets that comes along its way, on the basis of their IP addresses, and then send them along to their intended destinations. Usually all routers make use of the IOS routing software. The most prevalently used routers is Cisco. 


In a network, there is just central connecting equipment, which is known as the hub in the computer. Each computer is however directly linked to at least one hub. There are two kinds of hubs, active and passive. Hubs usually have quite a few number of ports, the number varying from five to sixteen. Out of all the ports that are present, one of them is called the uplink port that is meant for connecting to another hub. 


A switch helps to distinguish the IP address with the help of the MAP address that is present on the LAN card. It is better than a hub in the sense, that it sends the intended the information only to the computer that requires and does not broadcast it all over. Along with LAN, WAN and MAN also uses it. 


It is a device that provides as a gateway to the virtual world and is used as a communicating device. 

LAN Cards 

The basic structure that is a pre requisite for a computer network is a LAN card, without which the computer will not be able to gain access to the virtual world. 


It helps to preserve bandwidth on the network. It is done by dividing the network, which are connected by a bridge.

Download  CSE Seminar Topic on Networking with Seminar Report.