Introduction to Subnetting and Supernetting Technical Seminar Topic:

The traffic over the network address space utilization can not be controlled by installing more routers or by increasing the size of the routing tables. Every system has given a unique IP address consisting of 32 bits written in dotted decimal format. This 32 bit IP address is divided into two parts: first 0-15bits represents network number and from16-31bits represents host number. 

Classful IP addressing

Classful addressing divides the entire IP address space (0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255) into classes. The different classes of IP address are Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D & Class E. The value ranges of these classes starting from class A are- 0 to 126 (127 is loop back), 128 to 191, 192 to 223, 224 to 239 and 240 to 255 respectively. 

Subnetting: 

The basic purpose of subnetting is to control the traffic over the networks. An IP address consists of network number and host number therefore subnetting is dividing the network number part classes into small pieces. In subnetting bits are borrowed from host ID part to the network ID part. It has two-level hierarchy in which network number and host number parts are present, in three level hierarchy we have network number, subnet number and host number. 

Supernetting/CIDR: 

Supernetting is combining the multiple internet address of a class. It does not follow the concept of classes because it is very confusing. CIDR stands for Classes Inter-Domain Routing. The notation of CIDR is xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/n here ‘n’ is the number of leftmost ‘1’ bits in the mask.

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