Analysis of Results 

Analysis of the results achieved after running the simulation for 5 minutes is done in this chapter. The detail process followed to create the required scenarios and the step by step process implemented to develop the simulation is explained in the previous Simulation Procedure chapter and the results of the two scenarios after comparing them is given in this chapter. The main aim of this project is to compare the existing MAC protocol with the newly created S-MAC protocol and for this purpose two scenarios are created and compared based on the performance metrics chosen and the actual results obtained are explained as below 

Comparison of FTP metrics

As FTP is used as the application in this simulation process, few FTP metrics are used to evaluate the overall performance of both the scenarios and the actual comparison graphs for the FTP metrics are shown in this section as below 

Download response time

Download response time recorded for both the scenarios in this simulation process is given in this section and the actual graph obtained in this context is as shown below

It is observed from the above graph that there two different colored lines, where the red colored curve indicates the normal scenario where the WSN parameters are default and the blue line indicates the modified S-MAC scenario. From this graph it is clear that the overall download response time is more with the ordinary MAC protocol and it is very less with the modified MAC protocol. A maximum value of 2.4 seconds is obtained for the normal MAC configurations where the maximum value is only 0.8 seconds with the S-MAC configuration. From these observations it can be understood that the overall energy consumption towards the upload of the file across the sensor nodes is optimized in terms of the download response time and thus a lot of energy is saved with the S-MAC routing protocol and even the download response time is constant for the S-MAC when compared to ordinary MAC configuration and thus it can be concluded that S-MAC is better configuration to optimize the performance of the energy efficiency. 

Traffic received in packets per second 

When FTP application used TCP traffic is generated across the network and the corresponding traffic received in packets per second is shown while comparing the scenarios is shown below

More traffic is received with the S-MAC protocol and this can be observed from the above graph when compared to the ordinary MAC configuration. It is observed that almost a maximum value of 0.44 packets per second are received with the modified MAC config where this value is very less with the ordinary and it is recorded as 0.26 packets per seconds in this case and even the overall packet loss is more in this context when compared to the S-MAC protocol. From this analysis it can be understood that if the packet loss is less across the traffic received from the network the overall energy can be optimized and this is proved to be true with the case of S-MAC. 

Traffic sent in packets per seconds

The actual traffic sent against the traffic received as shown in the above screen for both the scenarios considered is shown in the below graph 

From the above graph it can be observed that almost there is no packet loss across the network with the S-MAC protocol where there is some considerable loss with the normal MAC configuration. From this analysis it is shown that the traffic sent with the S-MAC protocol is more across the FTP application when compared to the normal MAC protocol and thus even in this way the overall energy efficiency is improved a lot with the S-MAC protocol.  Thus the overall traffic sent and traffic received for the S-MAC configuration protocol is constant for the complete simulation time and this indicates that the overall packet loss is almost negligible using this energy efficient protocol and again it is proved to energy saving measure. 

Upload response time in seconds 

The upload response time in seconds recorded for both the scenarios and is given in the below graph 

The average upload response time incurred across both the scenarios is shown in the above graph and from this graph it is clear that the upload response time for the S-MAC is more when compared to the normal MAC configuration. From this analysis it can be observed the upload wait time is less with the S-MAC as the response time is more and this indicates that the overall time consumed is less with the S-MAC and this directly implies that energy consumption with this protocol is less when compared to the ordinary MAC configuration.  When this case is considered with MAC protocol it is observed that the upload response time is low and this indicates that the time taken to upload the files across the network is more and thus more energy of the sensor nodes is consumed in this context and again it can be concluded that the overall the energy consumption can be optimized with the proposed S-MAC protocol across the wireless sensor networks. 

Wireless LAN metrics 

The actual FTP metrics used and the corresponding results achieved and the actual wireless LAN metrics used and the respective results achieved in this context are given and explained in this section. The actual parameters used in this simulation process are given in this section and the corresponding results after comparing the two scenarios is given below

Data dropped

Data dropped is analyzed in this section and the actual graphs achieved after the simulation run is given in this section and the below graph is the actual comparison of the two scenarios

From this graph it is clear that the drop across the network is almost equal for both the scenarios and from this it can be derived that if the data drop is consistent it indicates that the average energy consumption is optimized and this is achieved with the S-MAC configuration. The actual data drop with the MAC configuration is not shown in this graph and this indicates that there is no perfect traffic generated with this default configuration and thus there is lot of packet loss with this implementation and thus the energy optimization can be optimized using the S-MAC protocol. From this analysis as well it indicates that S-MAC is always the best option to optimize the energy consumption. 

Delay in seconds 

Delay occurred across the network plays an important role in estimating the performance of the network and the actual delay for both the scenarios are shown in the below screen

Delay occurred with the S-MAC is more when compared to the normal MAC protocol and this comparison is shown in the above screen.  From this graph it is observed that if the delay is more, the nodes across the wireless sensor networks are idle for some time and thus if the nodes are in idle or sleep mode the overall energy consumption is reduced a lot. But when the scenario with the normal MAC protocol is observed the delay is less and this indicates that the sensor nodes are active in nature all the time and thus the overall delay is reduced and also the energy consumption is more when the nodes are active in nature. Thus the average wireless LAN delay plays an important role in estimating the overall energy consumption and from this analysis it is clear that S-MAC reduces the energy consumption in this context where it sets most of the sensor nodes to sleep or idle mode.

Load in bits per second 

The load incurred on the network due to the FTP traffic generated on the application is given in this section and is shown in the below graph 

From the above graph it is clear that the load on the network is more with the S-MAC routing protocol when compared to normal MAC configuration and this indicates that if the load is more on the network, the sensor nodes are set to sleep mode due to the heavy load. As the FTP application is used as the required application and even the medium load is incurred and thus the overall load on the network is more due to the sleep mode of the sensor nodes. From this analysis it is clear that with the implementation of the S-MAC protocol the overall energy can be optimized at a large extend and again from this metric as well it is proved that modification to the normal MAC protocol to improve the overall energy optimization. 

Medium Access delay 

Medium access delay can be considered as the important metrics that can be used to evaluate the performance of the normal MAC configuration and the actual proposed S-MAC configuration and the results achieved after comparing the scenarios is as given below

From the graph the blue curve represents the medium access delay for S-MAC configuration and the red curve represents the normal MAC configuration and from the above two curves it is clear that the delay is more with the S-MAC. From this indication it can be concluded that if the MAC delay is more the sensor nodes are quite idle at this conditions and thus when the sensor nodes are in idle or sleep mode the overall energy consumption is reduced a lot. So from the above graph it is clear that the overall energy consumption by the normal MAC configuration is more when compared to the proposed S-MAC and thus again from this indication it can be concluded that S-MAC is more efficient that the MAC in terms of Medium access delay and thus this value is directly proportional to the energy consumption. Even from this comparison it can be observed that the MAC delay is constant with the S-MAC when compared to the normal MAC protocol. 

Throughput 

Throughput can also be considered as the important metrics to evaluate the performance of the energy consumption of the MAC protocols and the actual comparison of these protocols is shown in the below graph 

Comparison of the throughput of the MAC and S-MAC protocols after running the simulation for 5 minutes is shown in the above graph. From this comparison analysis it can be observed that the throughput of S-MAC is initially more and at the end of the simulation it is less when compared to the normal MAC configuration. This indicates that if the throughput is less at end of the simulation it means that the overall performance of the network is improved in terms of energy consumption at the end of the communication across the network. Initially the energy consumption is not affected with the proposed S-MAC configuration and later at the end of the simulation it has improved a lot in terms of energy efficiency and thus this scenario indicates that at the end of the communication all the nodes implements the S-MAC configuration and tries to conserve low energy and thus the overall energy efficiency is improved a lot as the nodes being to sleep when their task is completed. 

Analysis 

From the overall analysis of the results achieved after comparing the ordinary MAC and S-MAC it is clear that, the proposed S-MAC has optimized the energy consumption of all the sensor nodes and also improved the overall performance of the network in terms of FTP application and also the wireless LAN MAC parameters. There is negligible packet loss across the proposed S-MAC scenario and also equal amount of traffic is sent and received across the proposed S-MAC configuration. S-MAC protocol makes the sensor nodes to be in either idle or sleep mode when there is no communication to be happen across the network and thus the overall performance of network is optimized in terms of energy consumption. Thus from all the results achieved and after the required analysis it can be concluded that S-MAC is always the best way to improve the energy efficiency across the wireless sensor networks.