In order to store data in Microsoft based systems and servers data structures are used which are called as an activity directory which deals with storing information of networks and domains, even authenticates the requests and data stores in it. 

 The directory is designed to handle large number of operations like read and write and also handles a small of operations like updates, modify etc .It is primarily used for online information and was created in the year 1996 but is first used with windows 2000. 

Active directory provides single point of management for windows based user account client’s servers and applications .The management of printers, computers, users, objects, groups, various applications etc can be done easily in a smooth fashion from a single secured centralized location. 

The special feature of ADS is security  .when a user logs into a computer which is a part of windows domain the ADS check whether the password entered by the user and determines whether the user is normal user or system administrator. All the authorized users can access active directory and its objects from any part of the network.

The security of active directory network is based on log on access, authentication and access control to data and objects kept in the directory. By using simple network authentication tool network administrator is able to handle entire network.

A special feature called single-on security mechanism is provided for users , this  features of ADS avoid the overburden of using multiple passwords for accessing different applications and services. Instead a single global security and configuration settings are maintained.

ADS is hierarchical structure and is broken down into three main categories like resources, services for end users like web servers and objects which are main functions of domain and network. The resources generally includes hardware such as printers, speakers etc. The directories can be viewed at any of the three levels; these levels include trees, forests and domains.

DOMAINS: The objects are grouped into domains and are stored in single database. These domains are identified by their DNS name structure called namespace. 

TREE: A tree is a collection of one or more domains and domain trees in contiguous namespace.

FOREST: A forest is a collection of trees that share a common catalog, logical structure and directory configurations.

For example in large organization that has many users and processes, the entire network of end users and specific computers at a set location forms a forest while the directories within the forest are called as trees. These trees hold the information about the objects such as domain controllers, program data and system data 

Active directories support easy deployment, management and increased security. It is a new support for renaming DNS names with forest names. This provides a greater support for companies that merge or restructured.

 Download An Activity Directory Domain Controller For the Domain Seminar Topic .